Agriculture is responsible for 8% of the total emissions of greenhouse effect gases and so, given the EU adhesion to the 1997 Kyoto protocol, it is obliged to assume a certain percentage in the reduction of these emissions. 41% of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of human origin in Europe comes from agriculture. The soil, through microbic processes of nitrification and denitrification, is deemed to be mainly responsible for these N2O emissions, contributing to NO emissions also.
Meadowlands form a system with a high potential for the emission of these gases, given their high quantity of organic material and the high levels of fertilisation to which intensive agriculture subjects them. In this study the following factors in N2O and NO emission in meadowlands have been investigated: fertilisation, the water content in the soil, tillage and the use of nitrification inhibitors.
The results obtained indicate that the clay soils studied in the Basque Country show a high level of nitrification. As a consequence, the Nitrogen from applications of organic residues is quickly transformed into a mineral Nitrogen which is susceptible to loss to the atmosphere in the form of oxides of Nitrogen and mainly as a consequence of nitrification. The addition of inhibitors of nitrification is a recommended practice for this type of fertiliser. The N2O emissions derived from mineral fertilisation with ammmonium calcium nitrate are mainly produced through desnitrification, and it is therefore recommended to adjust the mineral fertiliser rather than have to use it in conjunction with DCD. Practices like tillage have a negative effect, provoking N2O and NO emissions even over and above the levels recorded in highly fertilised but untilled areas. Given that it is common practice to dig up a field for the cultivation of forage maize, tillage using nitrogen-based fertilisation should be well-spaced so as to avoid high NO and N2O emissions
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07.03.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
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