Antibiotics have been used against infectious diseases with great success and have been a part of agriculture for many years. Agricultural uses of antibiotics include the treatment and prevention of diseases in animals and plants and the promotion of growth in food animals. But scientists have long recognized a down side. The concentrated and widespread use of antibiotic agents has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant organisms, some of which can now survive most commercially available antibiotics. A new report from the American Academy of Microbiology (AAM), "The Role of Antibiotics in Agriculture," carefully considers the issues.
Intensive and extensive antibiotic use leads to the establishment of a pool of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. Both pathogenic bacteria and organisms that do not cause disease may become resistant to antibiotics, and bacteria of human and animal origin can serve as reservoirs for resistance genes. Scientists are now trying to evaluate the odds that exposure to these genes will transfer antibiotic resistance to other populations of bacteria, animals, even humans. Research studies have shown that antibiotic resistant pathogens and possibly bacterial genes are transmitted from animals to humans through food, water, and by direct contact.
The transmissibility of antibiotic resistant bacteria or genes among animals and humans and the transfer of genes from antibiotic resistant bacteria to other kinds of bacteria associated with animals raise serious concerns about the use of antibiotics in agriculture. The concerns are three-fold: (1) that antibiotic resistance genes are amplified in the environment because of antibiotic use in agriculture; (2) that antibiotic resistance genes negatively impact public health; and (3) that antibiotic resistance genes negatively impact animal health and production.
Andrea Lohse | EurekAlert!
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Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.
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