Agricultural income, which indicates the return on agricultural entrepreneurs’ labour input and capital investment, thus saw an increase for the first time since 2002. Despite the increase, agricultural income in 2007 fell almost 14 percent short of the figures in 2002.
FEED COSTS REDUCED EARNINGS
The central factor in the rise in agricultural income is the increase in producer prices both in plant farming and in domestic animal production. On the other hand, a slight decrease was recorded in the volume of agricultural and horticultural subsidies compared to the previous year.
Costs continued to rise rapidly last year, and as a result the increase in income was almost two thirds lower than it would have been otherwise. Total costs rose by over five percent to almost EUR 3.3 billion. Especially feed costs, which rose especially rapidly at the end of 2007, increased total costs. The cost of construction also continued to rise faster than the standard rate of inflation. Furthermore, an overall rise in the level of interest rates and increased borrowing pushed interest costs up.
INCOME FROM GRAIN INCREASED MASSIVELY
According to MTT’s calculations, the overall agricultural and horticultural income last year amounted to slightly over EUR 4.3 billion, which is a six percent increase from the previous year. This increase in income resulted from a rise in producer prices of grain, milk, meat and eggs, in particular.
Sales proceeds from grain almost doubled in 2007. The increase in income is both a result of the increase in grain volumes due to good crops and the 50-percent increase in the average price. Grain prices are expected to remain high throughout the year, as the supply of grain on the global market is scarce compared to demand.
In 2007, the price of pork increased by an average of five percent, the price of beef by four percent, and the price of poultry by two percent compared to the previous year. The growth in production volumes of pork and poultry further increased the income.
The eight percent increase in the producer price of milk boosted sales proceeds of milk by almost six percent, despite the production volume being two percent lower than in the previous year.
GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION LOWERED HORTICULTURAL INCOME
Horticultural income only increased by just over 0.5 percent compared to the previous year. There was a clear increase in the value of open-field production, whereas returns from greenhouse production dropped by over four percent. Berry and apple crops were quite disappointing. Due to heavy rain, grey mould ruined some strawberry crops. However, the slightly higher prices of strawberries compared to the previous year partly compensated for the loss of crops.
Ulla Jauhiainen | alfa
Kakao in Monokultur verträgt Trockenheit besser als Kakao in Mischsystemen
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Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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