The techniques centre on two major innovations that have served to increase the efficiency and productivity of in vitro propagation by somatic embryogenesis*. First of all, CIRAD's researchers developed a technique for mass producing pregerminated somatic embryos in Rita®-type bioreactors: the embryos are immersed in a nutrient solution for just a few minutes a day, up to a very advanced stage of germination. The team then developed a technique for sowing the in vitro plantlets produced in bioreactors directly on a horticultural substrate, for the first time in the field of in vitro culture.
In Nicaragua, the Ecom/CIRAD team has now succeeded in transferring somatic embryogenesis to an industrial scale. The aim was to achieve production costs for producers similar to those of plants grown from seed. As regards production in a liquid medium, there are now 3500 bioreactors producing 250 000 pregerminated embryos a month, which can be acclimatized directly to nursery conditions. Using liquid nutrient media has made it possible to automate the procedure and reduce production costs considerably. As regards planting the somatic embryos, weaning tunnels and acclimatization procedures have been adapted to this highly immature, very small (8-10 mm) type of material. More than 70% of the embryos germinate and grow into plants a few weeks after sowing. Sowing the somatic embryos directly also reduces work times and the space required in the laboratory, since germination and plantlet growth take place in the nursery and not in vitro. Production costs are thus considerably lower than with conventional procedures.
The CIRAD team is now continuing its research on somatic embryogenesis, but this time under production conditions. While supporting the change of scale and the transfer of this procedure to other countries, it is concentrating on how to synchronize embryo development in bioreactors and on guaranteeing that the regenerated in vitro plantlets are genetically true-to-type. As for the Sebacco laboratory and its staff of 40, the target for 2008 is to produce 2.4 million plants.
* Somatic embryogenesis is an in vitro culture technique that generates large quantities of somatic embryos, ie embryos not produced from seed, that germinate like seed embryos and grow into genetically identical trees (clonal reproduction). In coffee, this enables the rapid regeneration of several tens of thousands of trees identical to the mother tree, from a single leaf fragment placed in vitro.
Helen Burford | alfa
Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product
02.12.2016 | Purdue University
New findings about the deformed wing virus, a major factor in honey bee colony mortality
11.11.2016 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy