Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Pod corn develops leaves in the inflorescences

25.04.2012
A leaf gene active in the maize cob causes leaves to grow in the male and female inflorescences
In a variant of maize known as pod corn, or tunicate maize, the maize kernels on the cob are not ‘naked’ but covered by long membranous husks known as glumes. According to scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne and Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, this variant arises from the activity of a leaf gene in the maize cob that is not usually active there. Thus, pod corn is not a wild ancestor of maize, but a mutant that forms leaves in the wrong place.

Pod corn has a spectacular appearance that has fascinated naturalists for two centuries. In this maize variant, the kernels are wrapped in fine glumes which look like thin paper in their dried form and resemble a leaf sheath. The male flowers, which are arranged in a panicle at the end of the stem axis, are also surrounded by long glumes, and sometimes even develop kernels that can otherwise only be found in the cob. The pod corn leaves resemble those of the normal maize plant. Pod corn had a ritual significance for some Native American tribes and can therefore be found throughout the American continent.

The putatitive significance of pod corn for the domestication of maize has long been a matter of controversy. Some scientists believed pod corn to be a wild, precursor of the varieties with naked kernels common today. Others disagreed with this view – and they were right, as we now know. The wild ancestor of today’s common maize varieties is not pod corn but the unimpressive sweet grass teosinte.

Heinz Saedler, Günter Theißen and their colleagues have now discovered how the spectacular appearance of pod corn arises. Their findings reveal that this variant has nothing to do with the domestication of maize, but is a mutant that forms leaves in the wrong place. Genetic experiments from the 1950s provided important inspiration for the research. “We knew from the old crossing experiments that the mutation must consist of at least two genetic components that can be inherited separately. If just one component is inherited, the glumes that surround the kernels in this mutant are significantly smaller and less conspicuous than the glumes in mutants with both components. However, they are not as tiny as the glumes found in common maize plants in which the kernels sit naked on the cob,” explains Heinz Saedler from the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research.

The researchers succeeded in showing that the components in question are two copies of the same gene which are located in tandem on chromosome 4. Although the gene itself is intact in pod corn, the region that controls the transcription of the gene is damaged. As a result of this defect, spatial control of gene activity in the right plant organs is lost. Therefore, in its mutated form, this gene is also active in the cob and not only in the growing leaves. “The gene contains the information for a transcription factor. Through its ectopic activity in the male and female inflorescence, it controls a set of so called ‘target genes’ and hence a programme in the glumes that is normally reserved for leaf development and should not be active in the inflorescence. As a result of this erroneous activity, the glumes assume a leaf-like growth pattern and grow until the kernels are completely covered,” says Günter Theißen from the University of Jena.

These findings also explain the existence of pod corn with smaller glumes. “The extent of this phenotype depends on whether there are one or two copies of the damaged gene on the chromosome and whether the plant is homozygous or heterozygous for this gene,” says Theißen. “If one gene copy is present, the effect on the leaf development programme is only half as strong as it is in one with two copies. Therefore this genetic effect is additive. The gene dosage decides, on the strength of the mutant phenotype.” Theißen and his colleagues were also able to show that the mutated gene belongs to an entire family of developmental control genes known as the MADS-box gene family. Other representatives of this family control other development processes in the plant.
Contact
Professor em. Dr. Heinz Saedler
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
Phone: +49 22 150-620
Email: saedler@­mpiz-koeln.mpg.de
Contact
Professor Dr. Günter Theißen
Friedrich-Schiller-Universität
Phone: +49 36 4194-9550
Email: guenter.theissen@­uni-jena.de

Original publication
Luzie U. Wingen, Thomas Münster, Wolfram Faigl, Wim Deleu, Hans Sommer, Heinz Saedler, Günter Theißen
Molecular genetic basis of pod corn (Tunicate maize)
PNAS 2012; online publication, April 18, 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1111670109

Professor em. Dr. Heinz Saedler | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mpg.de/5755791/pod_corn_leaves_inflorescences

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Two Most Destructive Termite Species Forming Superswarms in South Florida
27.03.2015 | University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

nachricht Greater-than-additive management effects key in reducing corn yield gaps
18.03.2015 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as...

Im Focus: Energy-autonomous and wireless monitoring protects marine gearboxes

The IPH presents a solution at HANNOVER MESSE 2015 to make ship traffic more reliable while decreasing the maintenance costs at the same time. In cooperation with project partners, the research institute from Hannover, Germany, has developed a sensor system which continuously monitors the condition of the marine gearbox, thus preventing breakdowns. Special feature: the monitoring system works wirelessly and energy-autonomously. The required electrical power is generated where it is needed – directly at the sensor.

As well as cars need to be certified regularly (in Germany by the TÜV – Technical Inspection Association), ships need to be inspected – if the powertrain stops...

Im Focus: 3-D satellite, GPS earthquake maps isolate impacts in real time

Method produced by UI researcher could improve reaction time to deadly, expensive quakes

When an earthquake hits, the faster first responders can get to an impacted area, the more likely infrastructure--and lives--can be saved.

Im Focus: Atlantic Ocean overturning found to slow down already today

The Atlantic overturning is one of Earth’s most important heat transport systems, pumping warm water northwards and cold water southwards. Also known as the Gulf Stream system, it is responsible for the mild climate in northwestern Europe. 

Scientists now found evidence for a slowdown of the overturning – multiple lines of observation suggest that in recent decades, the current system has been...

Im Focus: Robot inspects concrete garage floors and bridge roadways for damage

Because they are regularly subjected to heavy vehicle traffic, emissions, moisture and salt, above- and underground parking garages, as well as bridges, frequently experience large areas of corrosion. Most inspection systems to date have only been capable of inspecting smaller surface areas.

From April 13 to April 17 at the Hannover Messe (hall 2, exhibit booth C16), engineers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP will be...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

World Conference On Regenerative Medicine 2015: Registration And Abstract Submission Now Open

25.03.2015 | Event News

University presidents from all over the world meet in Hamburg

19.03.2015 | Event News

10. CeBiTec Symposium zum Big Data-Problem

17.03.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Two Most Destructive Termite Species Forming Superswarms in South Florida

27.03.2015 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

ORNL-Led Team Demonstrates Desalination with Nanoporous Graphene Membrane

27.03.2015 | Materials Sciences

Coorong Fish Hedge Their Bets for Survival

27.03.2015 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>