Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Nations That Sow Food Crops for Biofuels May Reap Less than Previously Thought

16.01.2009
Global yields of most biofuels crops, including corn, rapeseed and wheat, have been overestimated by 100 to 150 percent or more, suggesting many countries need to reset their expectations of agricultural biofuels to a more realistic level.

That’s according to a study led by Matt Johnston and Tracey Holloway of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies and Jon Foley of University of Minnesota, which drew on actual agricultural data from nearly 240 countries to calculate the potential yields of 20 different biofuels worldwide.

The analysis, publishing today (Jan. 13) in the open-access journal Environmental Research Letters, indicates the biofuels production potential in both developing and developed countries has often been exaggerated. Why? Because current yield estimates, most of which are based on data from the United States and Europe, don’t account for local differences in climate, soils, technology and other factors that influence agricultural outputs.

By offering an analysis of detailed, regional yield data that do encompass this variability, the scientists hope to empower wiser choices by countries about whether to invest in ethanol or biodiesel, which crops to plant, and how best to use existing farmlands. Although agricultural biofuels have been sharply criticized for their impacts on the environment and food supply, the reality is they’re here to stay, say the researchers, at least until alternatives such as cellulosic ethanol are developed. And that makes the availability of sound information critical.

“The biofuels industry has grown at an incredible rate. It’s a multibillion-dollar industry now,” says Johnston, a graduate student in the Nelson Institute’s Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE). “So, what we’ve tried to do is move beyond the back-of-the-envelope calculation — the time for that is over. We need to look at better data sources and make more informed decisions.”

In the past, he explains, policymakers, companies and farmers have based decisions about biofuels in part on “yield tables,” which make simple side-by-side comparisons of the fuel yield per unit of land for various crops; for example, the amount of ethanol a hectare of sugarcane will generate versus a hectare of corn.

The problem with these widely quoted tables, says Johnston, is the original sources of the numbers usually aren’t cited, making it impossible to gauge their validity. What’s more, the tables typically select a single value — often from just one country or even a single farm — to represent the yield of each crop regardless of where it’s grown.

“Often these are very optimistic numbers and they’re chosen to promote biofuels,” says Johnston. “So they usually (represent) the highest-yield, best-case scenario.”

To take a more sober look, Johnston turned to a global agricultural database, developed at SAGE, which provides actual yields of 175 crops, circa the year 2000, at a resolution of roughly five miles by five miles across the entire globe. After tapping it for yields of 10 biodiesel crops, such as soybean, rapeseed and oil palm, and 10 ethanol feedstocks, including corn, rice and wheat, Johnston calculated and mapped the amount of biofuel that could be produced per hectare in every possible country by crop combination — some 3,000 in all.

To evaluate his numbers against published yield table values, he then computed a global average yield for each of the 20 fuels, as well as the average yields of each in both developed and developing nations as a whole.

What he found were large gaps between the yield table numbers and his own, especially for developing countries. For instance, while his calculation for the average yield of corn ethanol in developed countries matched well with current yield table estimates, the average yield of developing countries was nearly 100 percent lower.

Such disparities weren’t restricted to the developing world either. Canada, for example, is one of the world’s largest producers of rapeseed. Yet, Johnston calculated its average yield of rapeseed biodiesel at just 550 liters per hectare — nearly half the estimates in yield tables, and well below the average for other developed nations.

Researchers at SAGE and University of Minnesota plan next to compare yields of biofuels in areas with similar climates, and then study how differences in management practices, such as irrigation or fertilizer use, may be contributing to gaps in production. The idea is to help countries get the most from existing farmlands, so they’ll put less new land to the plow and can better balance investment in biofuels against other needs, such as food security. But first they just need better data.

“This is not a one-dimensional issue and just knowing the crop yields isn’t going to tell you what the best solution is,” says Holloway. “But if you’re going to be making land use decisions related to biofuels, it’s critical that you at least know what you’re going to get from a plot of land.”

All data from the study can be acquired from SAGE at http://www.sage.wisc.edu/energy/index.html. The paper’s other authors are Chris Kucharik, SAGE, and Chad Monfreda, Arizona State University.

Madeline Fisher | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.wisc.edu
http://www.sage.wisc.edu/energy/index.html

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Six-legged livestock -- sustainable food production
11.05.2017 | Faculty of Science - University of Copenhagen

nachricht Elephant Herpes: Super-Shedders Endanger Young Animals
04.05.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Strathclyde-led research develops world's highest gain high-power laser amplifier

The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier - by many orders of magnitude - has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.

The researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma to amplify short laser pulses of picojoule-level energy up to 100 millijoules, which is a 'gain'...

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New insights into the ancestors of all complex life

29.05.2017 | Earth Sciences

New photocatalyst speeds up the conversion of carbon dioxide into chemical resources

29.05.2017 | Life Sciences

NASA's SDO sees partial eclipse in space

29.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>