Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Look back at US soybeans shows genetic improvement behind increased yields

06.03.2014

Soybean improvement through plant breeding has been critical over the years for the success of the crop.

In a new study that traces the genetic changes in varieties over the last 80 years of soybean breeding, researchers concluded that increases in yield gains and an increased rate of gains over the years are largely due to the continual release of greater-yielding cultivars by breeders.

"This research in some ways looks back and informs us how soybean varieties have changed. It's useful to document these traits and changes," said Brian Diers, a University of Illinois plant breeder and researcher on the study. "We can show that we really have been successful at increasing yield."

But this study is also about the future of the soybean crop.

... more about:
»Agricultural »Consumer »Environmental »Look »soybeans

"The study has actually created quite a lot of interest among soybean breeders because they want to understand what's happened, and when we look at physiological traits, we can see what has been changed. This gives us clues about what traits we should focus on in breeding for future increases based what has been inadvertently changed over time as we have selected for yield," he said.

Diers and a multi-institutional team of researchers evaluated historic sets of 60 maturity group (MG) II, 59 MG III, and 49 MG IV soybean varieties, released from 1923 to 2008, in field trials conducted in 17 states and one Canadian province during 2010 to 2011.

The experiments included plant introductions (PIs) and public cultivars obtained from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection housed at the National Soybean Research Center at the U of I, as well as from varieties provided by Monsanto, Pioneer, and Syngenta.

In the process of documenting the genetic changes, the researchers observed an increase in yields over the past 80 years that is equivalent to one-third of a bushel per acre per year increase.

Diers said that the researchers estimated that about two-thirds of the yield increases in farmer's fields are due to new varieties that breeders have introduced with the other third due to other reasons such as improved agronomic practices.

"When we compare old varieties to new varieties, the new varieties do yield much better than the old varieties. When we look at the data more closely, the yield increases have actually accelerated starting in the 1960s and 1970s. It's different for each maturity group, but current yield increases are greater than they were earlier," Diers said.

This research also showed that when compared to old varieties, plants in the new varieties are shorter in height, mature later, lodge less, and have seeds with less protein and greater oil concentration.

"The new varieties tend to mature later within these maturity groups, which is something that theoretically shouldn't happen because we classify these varieties based on when they mature. So theoretically MG II varieties should mature at the same time now as one back in the 1970s, but this is not the case," Diers said. "Probably over time, people have been selecting varieties that are a little bit later and later, and these changes have accumulated. In some ways, it's not a bad thing, because farmers are planting earlier than they did back in the 1970s so they actually need varieties that will mature later than back then. That's not a bad thing."

Other traits reported as changed over time included earlier flowering time, which has resulted in an expanded reproductive period. "We didn't know that this reproductive period was expanding, and we are now asking whether breeding for an even longer reproductive period could further increase yields. Other studies have looked at the interaction of planting date by year of release and have shown new varieties can utilize earlier planting dates better than old varieties," Diers said.

With soybean being a leading source of protein and oil for human food, animal feed, and other products, global rates of yield increases for the crop will need to keep up with demand in the future.

"By understanding how we've made these changes to date, it can help us understand how we can further improve yields and increase the rate of gain," Diers said.

Diers plans to study ways to increase the rate of genetic gains using more modern breeding techniques.

"Most of the yield increases are the result of breeders selecting better combinations of genes that can allow plants to take sunlight and produce more seed from that sunlight. We don't know what genes breeders are selecting that are resulting in these increases, for example, where in that pathway from the sunlight hitting the canopy to producing seed where this occurs. Breeders, by selecting new varieties that have more yield, are able to make this progress without really understanding the mechanism," Diers said.

###

The study, "Genetic Improvement of US Soybean in Maturity Groups II, III, and IV," was recently published in the Journal of Crop Science and can be accessed online at https://www.crops.org/publications/cs/view/first-look/c13-08-0579.

Co-authors of the study include Keith Rincker, Randall Nelson, James Specht, David Sleper, Troy Cary, Silvia R. Cianzio, Shaun Casteel, Shawn Conley, Pengyin Chen, Vince Davis, Carolyn Fox, George Graef, Chad Godsey, David Holshouser, Guo-Liang Jiang, Stella K. Kantartzi, William Kenworthy, Chad Lee, Rouf Mian, Leah McHale, Seth Naeve, James Orf, Vaino Poysa, William Schapaugh, Grover Shannon, Robert Uniatowski, Dechun Wang, and Brian Diers.

Brian Diers | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.illinois.edu

Further reports about: Agricultural Consumer Environmental Look soybeans

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht For pollock surveys in Alaska, things are looking up
22.05.2015 | NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service

nachricht Brazilian Beef Industry Moves to Reduce Its Destruction of Rain Forests
13.05.2015 | University of Wisconsin-Madison

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Basel Physicists Develop Efficient Method of Signal Transmission from Nanocomponents

Physicists have developed an innovative method that could enable the efficient use of nanocomponents in electronic circuits. To achieve this, they have developed a layout in which a nanocomponent is connected to two electrical conductors, which uncouple the electrical signal in a highly efficient manner. The scientists at the Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel have published their results in the scientific journal “Nature Communications” together with their colleagues from ETH Zurich.

Electronic components are becoming smaller and smaller. Components measuring just a few nanometers – the size of around ten atoms – are already being produced...

Im Focus: IoT-based Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation System

Development and implementation of an advanced automobile parking navigation platform for parking services

To fulfill the requirements of the industry, PolyU researchers developed the Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation Platform, which includes smart devices,...

Im Focus: First electrical car ferry in the world in operation in Norway now

  • Siemens delivers electric propulsion system and charging stations with lithium-ion batteries charged from hydro power
  • Ferry only uses 150 kilowatt hours (kWh) per route and reduces cost of fuel by 60 percent
  • Milestone on the road to operating emission-free ferries

The world's first electrical car and passenger ferry powered by batteries has entered service in Norway. The ferry only uses 150 kWh per route, which...

Im Focus: Into the ice – RV Polarstern opens the arctic season by setting course for Spitsbergen

On Tuesday, 19 May 2015 the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its home port in Bremerhaven, setting a course for the Arctic. Led by Dr Ilka Peeken from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) a team of 53 researchers from 11 countries will investigate the effects of climate change in the Arctic, from the surface ice floes down to the seafloor.

RV Polarstern will enter the sea-ice zone north of Spitsbergen. Covering two shallow regions on their way to deeper waters, the scientists on board will focus...

Im Focus: Gel filled with nanosponges cleans up MRSA infections

Nanoengineers at the University of California, San Diego developed a gel filled with toxin-absorbing nanosponges that could lead to an effective treatment for skin and wound infections caused by MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), an antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This "nanosponge-hydrogel" minimized the growth of skin lesions on mice infected with MRSA - without the use of antibiotics. The researchers recently published their findings online in Advanced Materials.

To make the nanosponge-hydrogel, the team mixed nanosponges, which are nanoparticles that absorb dangerous toxins produced by MRSA, E. coli and other...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International symposium: trends in spatial analysis and modelling for a more sustainable land use

20.05.2015 | Event News

15th conference of the International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists

18.05.2015 | Event News

EHFG 2015: Securing health in Europe. Balancing priorities, sharing responsibilities

12.05.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Climate engineering may save coral reefs, study shows

26.05.2015 | Earth Sciences

Biodiversity: 11 new species come to light in Madagascar

26.05.2015 | Life Sciences

Location matters in the lowland Amazon

26.05.2015 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>