Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Look back at US soybeans shows genetic improvement behind increased yields

06.03.2014

Soybean improvement through plant breeding has been critical over the years for the success of the crop.

In a new study that traces the genetic changes in varieties over the last 80 years of soybean breeding, researchers concluded that increases in yield gains and an increased rate of gains over the years are largely due to the continual release of greater-yielding cultivars by breeders.

"This research in some ways looks back and informs us how soybean varieties have changed. It's useful to document these traits and changes," said Brian Diers, a University of Illinois plant breeder and researcher on the study. "We can show that we really have been successful at increasing yield."

But this study is also about the future of the soybean crop.

... more about:
»Agricultural »Consumer »Environmental »Look »soybeans

"The study has actually created quite a lot of interest among soybean breeders because they want to understand what's happened, and when we look at physiological traits, we can see what has been changed. This gives us clues about what traits we should focus on in breeding for future increases based what has been inadvertently changed over time as we have selected for yield," he said.

Diers and a multi-institutional team of researchers evaluated historic sets of 60 maturity group (MG) II, 59 MG III, and 49 MG IV soybean varieties, released from 1923 to 2008, in field trials conducted in 17 states and one Canadian province during 2010 to 2011.

The experiments included plant introductions (PIs) and public cultivars obtained from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection housed at the National Soybean Research Center at the U of I, as well as from varieties provided by Monsanto, Pioneer, and Syngenta.

In the process of documenting the genetic changes, the researchers observed an increase in yields over the past 80 years that is equivalent to one-third of a bushel per acre per year increase.

Diers said that the researchers estimated that about two-thirds of the yield increases in farmer's fields are due to new varieties that breeders have introduced with the other third due to other reasons such as improved agronomic practices.

"When we compare old varieties to new varieties, the new varieties do yield much better than the old varieties. When we look at the data more closely, the yield increases have actually accelerated starting in the 1960s and 1970s. It's different for each maturity group, but current yield increases are greater than they were earlier," Diers said.

This research also showed that when compared to old varieties, plants in the new varieties are shorter in height, mature later, lodge less, and have seeds with less protein and greater oil concentration.

"The new varieties tend to mature later within these maturity groups, which is something that theoretically shouldn't happen because we classify these varieties based on when they mature. So theoretically MG II varieties should mature at the same time now as one back in the 1970s, but this is not the case," Diers said. "Probably over time, people have been selecting varieties that are a little bit later and later, and these changes have accumulated. In some ways, it's not a bad thing, because farmers are planting earlier than they did back in the 1970s so they actually need varieties that will mature later than back then. That's not a bad thing."

Other traits reported as changed over time included earlier flowering time, which has resulted in an expanded reproductive period. "We didn't know that this reproductive period was expanding, and we are now asking whether breeding for an even longer reproductive period could further increase yields. Other studies have looked at the interaction of planting date by year of release and have shown new varieties can utilize earlier planting dates better than old varieties," Diers said.

With soybean being a leading source of protein and oil for human food, animal feed, and other products, global rates of yield increases for the crop will need to keep up with demand in the future.

"By understanding how we've made these changes to date, it can help us understand how we can further improve yields and increase the rate of gain," Diers said.

Diers plans to study ways to increase the rate of genetic gains using more modern breeding techniques.

"Most of the yield increases are the result of breeders selecting better combinations of genes that can allow plants to take sunlight and produce more seed from that sunlight. We don't know what genes breeders are selecting that are resulting in these increases, for example, where in that pathway from the sunlight hitting the canopy to producing seed where this occurs. Breeders, by selecting new varieties that have more yield, are able to make this progress without really understanding the mechanism," Diers said.

###

The study, "Genetic Improvement of US Soybean in Maturity Groups II, III, and IV," was recently published in the Journal of Crop Science and can be accessed online at https://www.crops.org/publications/cs/view/first-look/c13-08-0579.

Co-authors of the study include Keith Rincker, Randall Nelson, James Specht, David Sleper, Troy Cary, Silvia R. Cianzio, Shaun Casteel, Shawn Conley, Pengyin Chen, Vince Davis, Carolyn Fox, George Graef, Chad Godsey, David Holshouser, Guo-Liang Jiang, Stella K. Kantartzi, William Kenworthy, Chad Lee, Rouf Mian, Leah McHale, Seth Naeve, James Orf, Vaino Poysa, William Schapaugh, Grover Shannon, Robert Uniatowski, Dechun Wang, and Brian Diers.

Brian Diers | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.illinois.edu

Further reports about: Agricultural Consumer Environmental Look soybeans

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Alkaline soil, sensible sensor
03.08.2017 | American Society of Agronomy

nachricht New 3-D model predicts best planting practices for farmers
26.06.2017 | Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>