Promoting genetic diversity in crops is traditional practice for agriculture professionals, and with today’s technology, scientists are able to develop breeding programs with great care for the security of crops.
This is particularly important due to the numerous risks the world’s food supplies face with the changing climate. Genetic diversity in a breeding program is essential as an insurance against unforeseeable changes in the environment and to maintain genetic progress.
The incorporation of diversity into a breeding program, however, should be planned carefully. Without taking great care in the incorporation of diversity into a breeding program, poorly adapted genotypes may prevent genetic progress and may therefore have a short-term negative impact on the breeding program. On the other hand, the use of elite genotypes adapted to the local conditions could increase diversity while maintaining genetic gain.
Adapted genotypes can easily be obtained for any environment if the genotypes are evaluated in the target environment. However, it is not possible for a breeding program to evaluate every single candidate genotype. Predicting the performance of a genotype is difficult due to the multiple breeding objectives and the many environmental conditions of genotype evaluation. Therefore, finding adapted elite genotypes is challenging if the genotypes are not evaluated in the targeted environment.
A recent study conducted at Iowa State University proposed data-driven methods to group breeding programs likely to be compatible for germplasm exchange. Specifically, the researchers characterized the genetic diversity of traits in advanced inbred lines of barley from 23 public and private barley breeding programs, which they analyzed to identify mega-targets of selection (i.e. groups of breeding programs likely to be compatible for germplasm exchange) among those breeding programs. Results from this research are published in the January 2009 issue of the journal Crop Science.
The researchers found that all phenotypic traits had significant genetic diversity, but only seven of the 20 traits evaluated showed differences in the amount of diversity among the breeding programs. Some breeding programs had high levels of diversity for most traits, while others had low levels of diversity.
The methodology proposed by the authors groups breeding programs by their performance and by their response to changes in the environment, resulting in sets of breeding programs with similar performance and similar adaptations. They call these sets mega-targets of selection. The authors identified three mega-targets of selection among the barley breeding programs. They hypothesize that exchange of germplasm within mega-targets of selection would produce adapted genotypes with high yields. Research is ongoing to develop larger data sets to evaluate this method.
The full article is available for no charge for 30 days following the date of this summary. View the abstract at http://crop.scijournals.org.
Crop Science is the flagship journal of the Crop Science Society of America. Original research is peer-reviewed and published in this highly cited journal. It also contains invited review and interpretation articles and perspectives that offer insight and commentary on recent advances in crop science. For more information, visit http://crop.scijournals.org
The Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), founded in 1955, is an international scientific society comprised of 6,000+ members with its headquarters in Madison, WI. Members advance the discipline of crop science by acquiring and disseminating information about crop breeding and genetics; crop physiology; crop ecology, management, and quality; seed physiology, production, and technology; turfgrass science; forage and grazinglands; genomics, molecular genetics, and biotechnology; and biomedical and enhanced plants.
CSSA fosters the transfer of knowledge through an array of programs and services, including publications, meetings, career services, and science policy initiatives.
Sara Uttech | Newswise Science News
Microjet generator for highly viscous fluids
13.02.2018 | Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Sweet route to greater yields
08.02.2018 | Rothamsted Research
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy