Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Herbicide-resistant grape could revitalize Midwest wine industry

16.10.2008
An herbicide that is effective at killing broadleaf weeds in corn, but also annihilated most of the grapes in Illinois and other Midwestern states, may finally have a worthy contender. Researchers at the University of Illinois have developed a new grape called Improved Chancellor which is resistant to the popular herbicide 2, 4-D.

"In 1946, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic or 2, 4-D was introduced. It was a wonder herbicide," said Robert Skirvin, plant biologist in the College ofAgriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. "It works really well in corn and wheat and grass crops because it kills the broadleaves, so the grasses are resistant to it, but grapes are incredibly sensitive to it."

Skirvin said that 1/100th of the amount of 2, 4-D commonly used on corn to kill broadleaves, will kill grapes. Today, more than 50 years after it was introduced, it's still the third most widely used herbicide in the United States.

The discovery of the gene that makes Improved Chancellor resistant to 2, 4-D came about by accident. "The USDA found a soil bacterium that had a gene that breaks down 2, 4-D. Someone noticed that after spilling 2, 4-D on the ground, something in the soil broke it up – metabolized it. They were looking for something to control pollution and discovered this soil bacterium instead," said Robert Skirvin, plant biologist in the Collegeof Agriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences.

Skirvin received permission to use the bacterial gene and began in 2002 to transfer it to a grape that would ultimately be resistant to 2, 4-D. He and his graduate student Richard Mulwa followed standard genetic engineering techniques in order to transfer the gene to grape cells. "Selecting the transformed cells is the most delicate stage of the process because out of hundreds of thousands of cells, there may be only 25 cells that actually contain the gene," said Skirvin.

He explained that in order to locate the cells that have the gene, another gene that's an antibiotic to Kanamycin is inserted as a marker. The cells are then placed onto a medium that's very high in Kanamycin. All of the normal cells die. The only ones that will live are the ones with the antibiotic marker – which are also the cells that contain the 2, 4-D resistant gene. Stephen Farrand, a U of I microbiologist, assisted in all aspects of the gene transfer and Margaret Norton oversaw all of the tissue culture operation.

"Then we have to take the cells and regenerate them into plants. We use a tissue culture media and start the cells growing. After about two years in the lab, we had tiny seed-like shoots that developed from the transgenic grape cells. These were grown until they were big enough to be transferred to a limited access greenhouse where they were allowed to mature and produce fruit."

From these experiments, eight Chancellor plants were obtained; it was determined through DNA testing that only three of them had the herbicide resistant gene. Cuttings were taken of those three and planted. The plants were then sprayed with 2, 4-D. Each of the three Chancellor plants was tested at the equivalent amount of .5 kilograms per hectare of 2, 4-D, 5 kilograms per hectare and 10 kilograms per hectare, along with one of the original Chancellor plants as a control.

"It was quite an accomplishment to get the gene into the plant," said Skirvin. "This grape could help salvage the wine and grape industry in theMidwest." If all goes well, Skirvin hopes that in about five years they'll be able to work with a grape grower to produce wine using their new patented cultivar that they have named 'Improved Chancellor.'

Because the new grape is genetically modified it hasn't been tested outside of the greenhouse yet. Skirvin hopes to get permission to grow them in an isolation plot outdoors by spring 2009.

"We have to do tests to make sure that there aren't any poisonous compounds that would get into the grape or the wine. We'll test the grapes and after spraying with 2, 4-D check the break down products to find out where the 2, 4-D goes and what happens to the 2, 4-D after it enters the plant. The Improved Chancellor is resistant to 2, 4-D, but the herbicide must be going somewhere, so we need to make sure there are no harmful compounds in the fruit.

"After the grapes have been tested and found safe to eat, I think it's going to be beneficial to Minnesota, Nebraska, Illinois and other Midwestern states -- anywhere grain is grown and 2, 4-D is sprayed on the crops," said Skirvin.

"A grape resistant to 2, 4-D would be a huge plus to our industry," said Kansas grower Rebecca Storey. "As a vineyard and winery owner we have suffered losses from this chemical that runs in the tens of thousands of dollars -- not to mention the time and effort to identify the sprayer and prove the damage in a court of law. This grape would be a gift to our industry."

Debra Levey Larson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.illinois.edu

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture
05.10.2017 | Oregon State University

nachricht New machine evaluates soybean at harvest for quality
04.10.2017 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>