In areas of the U.S. where golfers can enjoy the game year-round, winter temperatures, foot and equipment traffic, and frost can wreak havoc on healthy greens and present challenges for course managers and owners.
Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds.), a turfgrass commonly used on golf course putting greens, is often preferred because of its year-round green color, ball roll, and playability. But managing bentgrass turf presents unique challenges from temperature fluctuations and frost, which can result in delayed tee times for golfers and lost revenue for course owners. Winter traffic from golfers, equipment, and animals can also cause damage and discolor greens.
In response to this common golf course management issue, researchers at Clemson University initiated a study to determine the impact of foot and mower traffic on winter bentgrass performance. The study determined that time and type of traffic significantly influenced bentgrass winter performance,
"This study indicates bentgrass damage resulting from winter traffic is limited to winter and early spring months, and full recovery should be expected by summer", explained Haibo Liu, lead author of the research study published in the American Society for Horticultural Science journal HortScience. "During winter months, decisions regarding golf course set-up and the timing of play are important when temperatures approach zero degrees Centigrade. Often, tee times (during winter) are delayed or canceled, resulting in lost revenue and tension between golfers and course superintendents."
The report recommended that golf course practitioners should proceed cautiously when allowing traffic on turfgrass immediately after a frost melt, and concluded that, although bentgrass suffers damage and discoloration resulting from winter traffic (in the eastern part of the transition zone), full recovery should be expected in the spring when temperatures remain above freezing.
Michael W. Neff | EurekAlert!
Ammonium nitrogen input increases the synthesis of anticarcinogenic compounds in broccoli
26.04.2017 | University of the Basque Country
New data unearths pesticide peril in beehives
21.04.2017 | Cornell University
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences