An important agricultural region in China is drying out, and increased farming may be more to blame than rising temperatures and less rain, according to a study spanning 30 years of data.
A research team led by Purdue University and China Agricultural University analyzed soil moisture during the growing season in Northern China and found that it has decreased by 6 percent since 1983.
This is a map of soil moisture trends in Northern China during the growing seasons from 1983-2012. The shading shows the trend in satellite-observed surface soil moisture, and the circles represent monitoring stations within agricultural plots. A Purdue University-led research team found that farming was more of a driver in the drying of the soil than rising temperatures and declining rainfall. The change in volumetric water content is shown.
Credit: Purdue University image/Yaling Liu
The optimal soil-moisture level for farmland is typically 40 percent to 85 percent of the water holding capacity, and the region's soil is now less than 40 percent and getting drier. If this trend continues, the soil may not be able to support crops by as early as 2090, said study leader Qianlai Zhuang, Purdue's William F. and Patty J. Miller Professor of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences and Agronomy.
"The soil moisture declined by 1.5 to 2.5 percent every decade of the study and, while climate change is still a factor, this water depletion appears to be largely driven by human activities," Zhuang said. "A 10 percent decline in soil moisture over the course of a century would have major implications for agriculture and the fresh water supply in this heavily populated area."
Forty percent of the nation's population resides in Northern China, according to the country's population census office. The region also accounts for 65 percent of the nation's cropland, Zhuang said.
"The drying of soil in Northern China has been well documented, but its causes and the impacts of agricultural intensification in general have been understudied," he said.
"This information is critical to improvement of agricultural practices and water resource management. The demand for food and water is increasing, but current practices to meet this demand threaten the future security of water resources. Unfortunately, with the growing world population, more and more regions could face the same circumstances of agricultural intensification for food security."
A paper detailing the results was published July 9 in Nature's Scientific Reports journal and is currently available online.
In addition to Zhuang, co-authors from Purdue include Yaling Liu, a former graduate student in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences who is now a postdoctoral researcher at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Tonglin Zhang, an associate professor of statistics; and Dev Niyogi, a professor of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences and Indiana State Climatologist. Additional co-authors include Zhihua Pan, Pingli An, Zhiqiang Dong, Jingtin Zhang, Di He, Liewei Wang and Xuebiao Pan of China Agricultural University in Beijing; Diego G. Miralles, of the University of Ghent in Belgium; and Adriaan J. Teuling, of the Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group of Wageningen University in The Netherlands.
The team obtained direct observations recorded at 40 monitoring stations set up by the Chinese government within agricultural plots, and used available data of fertilizer use and crop types since 1983. The team also used satellite remote sensing of water content on the soil's surface and terrestrial water storage, meteorological observations and measurements of river discharge in their analysis.
The team also conducted a long-term study from 1983 to 2009 at two contiguous sites, one a pristine pasture and the other an agricultural site. The results showed a significant drying trend in the soil moisture in the cropland as opposed to a slight increase in the moisture of the pristine pasture soil.
The results showed a consistent trend in the reduction of soil moisture that correlated with increased fertilizer usage and the proliferation of crops with high water demands, like maize.
Fertilizer causes plants to grow larger and increases the number of leaves per plant. This leads to increased transpiration of water through pores on the leaves, called stomata. In addition, fertilizer use may aggravate soil compaction and soil salinity, which reduces the water holding capacity of soil and, consequently, reduces available soil water, Liu said.
"Fertilizer has been overused in China, which accounts for 31.4 percent of the total global consumption," Liu said. "Although the negative effects of using fertilizer in excess of the needs of the crop is recognized in the scientific community, it is difficult to reverse the farming practices."
While the increased use of fertilizer is not the only factor involved, the researchers found that it served as a broad diagnostic of the level of agricultural intensification. Other agricultural practices may also play a part in drying the land. For instance, newly developed crop varieties may demand more water and result in declining soil moisture, and increasing irrigation leads to rising withdrawals of surface freshwater and groundwater, she said.
"The results of this study underscore the importance of developing strategies for sustainable agriculture," Liu said. "Perhaps crops that require less water could be substituted, water-saving technologies like mulching, reduced tillage, drip irrigation and improved soil-crop system management could be employed more broadly and advances in agricultural technology could improve the situation. The Chinese government is very interested in this issue, and this work was an important step in the road to sustainability."
The National Basic Research Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science and Technology Support Program of China, National Non-profit Research Foundation for Agriculture of China, NASA Land Use and Land Cover Change program, U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation funded this research.
Writer: Elizabeth K. Gardner, 765-494-2081, email@example.com
Sources: Qianlai Zhuang, 765-494-9610, firstname.lastname@example.org
Note to Journalists: A Chinese language version of the news release is available upon request.
Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China
Yaling Liu, Zhihua Pan, Qianlai Zhuang, Diego G. Miralles, Adriaan J. Teuling, Tonglin Zhang, Pingli An, Zhiqiang Dong, Jingtin Zhang, Di He, Liwei Wang, Xuebiao Pan, Wei Bai & Dev Niyogi
Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983-2012, we find that topsoil (0-50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015m3m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistent with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favored biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g. maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.
Elizabeth K. Gardner | EurekAlert!
Energy crop production on conservation lands may not boost greenhouse gases
13.03.2017 | Penn State
How nature creates forest diversity
07.03.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Earth Sciences
24.03.2017 | Health and Medicine
24.03.2017 | Earth Sciences