Biogenic amines may be one of the factors responsible for symptoms such as headaches, gastro-intestinal disorders, shortness of breath, fall in blood pressure, and even unconsciousness and cardiac arrhythmia in severe cases.
Histamine, one of the best known members of this group, can cause serious physical problems. Biogenic amines can be produced in the body by natural metabolic activities but are also ingested in larger quantities with food.
They play a special role in microbiologically produced food such as wine, beer, cheese, and sauerkraut. In a joint project Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Dienstleistungszentrum Ländlicher Raum Rheinpfalz (DLR) have developed measures to identify and reduce biogenic amines in wine, where they can be of particular risk to human well-being.
The goal of these investigations was to avoid high concentrations of biogenic amines in wine. The corresponding investigations were performed in the Institute of Microbiology and Wine Research at Mainz University and the Dienstleistungszentrum Ländlicher Raum Rhenish Palatinate in Neustadt in a joint project sponsored by the Research Association of the German Food Industry (FEI).
"It is important to make efforts in order to reduce biogenic amines in wine, since this problem shall increase in future," predicts Professor Dr. Helmut König of the JGU Institute of Microbiology and Wine Research (IMW). Compared to other microbiologically processed food such as cheese the concentration of biogenic amines in wine may be low. However, their effect on sensitive human beings may be strongly increased during simultaneous ingestion of wine and other problematic food since alcohol significantly impairs the body's ability to metabolize biogenic amines.
Therefore, Helmut König's team and the enologists of the working group of Ulrich Fischer in Neustadt have developed "Practicable Milestones" in order to enable wine-makers to lower the risk of the production of biogenic amines. There currently is no regulatory requirement regarding the upper limits for biogenic amines in wine. However, in view of the health risks and the need to prevent the development of off-flavors that can be caused by some bacteria, wine-makers shall take measures in respect to cellar and wine producing techniques now.
The addressed problems may increase in future as a result of climate change, because higher temperatures will promote the growth of undesirable bacteria on the grapes. It has been shown that the production of biogenic amines will be enhanced due to elevated pH values. An earliness of the ripening period of the grapes may lead to an increase of the pH value of the grape juice.
Preventative and curative measures include the use of tested starter cultures, the early detection of the presence of biogenic amine-forming bacteria by molecular methods and procedures to prevent their growth, for example the application of flash pasteurization or the removal of biogenic amines with the help of bentonite or yeast cell walls. The most economic preventive measure is to lower the pH value by adding tartaric acid. This is already permitted in the warmer climate zones of the EU and in non-European countries, but German wine-makers are currently prohibited to apply this measure. However, in the last years an exemption to this regulation was granted.Publication
Petra Giegerich | idw
Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product
02.12.2016 | Purdue University
New findings about the deformed wing virus, a major factor in honey bee colony mortality
11.11.2016 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
05.12.2016 | Information Technology
05.12.2016 | Earth Sciences