Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Defying Climate Change, Ensuring Maize Stability

22.01.2010
Climate change is an ever-present threat to agriculture. Many experts predict sudden and unexpected changes in climatic conditions will bring new stresses to the environment. Ensuring the stability of crop varieties across environments and conditions is a critical breeding goal when dealing with the uncertainty of climate change.

Maize is one of three primary crops worldwide. Slight changes in climatic conditions may cause substantial yield losses, resulting in great food shortages and economic losses. Consequently, numerous breeding programs are currently evaluating maize stability under different climatic stress conditions. However, many breeders design yield improvement programs without first conducting preliminary studies to determine which environmental factors actually limit the crop and which genetic parameters are essentially affected.

Scientists in northwestern Spain, from the Spanish National Council (CSIC), have investigated the effects of multiple climatic stresses on maize grain yield. The study, which was funded by the Spanish Plan of Research and Development, evaluated 76 Spanish populations of maize, along with five commercial hybrids. Research was conducted at three distinct locations over three years, for a total of nine environments. Evaluations were made under multiple stress conditions, including a shortage of water, cold temperature, and low nutrient availability. No pesticide or herbicide treatments were applied during the growing cycle, and weeding was limited in order to allow competition. Data on several traits related to plant development and yield were collected on each plot. Environmental variables were also recorded to monitor variations in temperature and rainfall during the growth season.

The results of the study, which are published in the January/February 2010 issue of Crop Science, illuminate the effect of genotype and environment on yield stability, as well as the magnitude of genotype-environment interactions. Researchers determined that commercial hybrids had higher yield and stability than most populations, suggesting that breeding programs focusing on yield have released hybrids with high yield and stability under different stress conditions. Some non-hybrid populations also produced a reasonable compromise between yield and stability. If yield stability under stress conditions is a breeding goal, researchers recommended that several climatic variables, especially those related to high temperatures, and genotypic traits, such as kernel depth and ear length, be considered.

Although hybrids are more stable under diverse climatic conditions, it is important to remember that old populations are the reservoirs of genes from which these hybrids have been developed. In order to continue the development of improved hybrids, research with populations must also be emphasized. However, old populations need to be intensely improved for yield if they are going to be used for future breeding programs.

The full article is available for no charge for 30 days following the date of this summary. View the abstract at http://crop.scijournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/50/1/51.

Crop Science is the flagship journal of the Crop Science Society of America. Original research is peer-reviewed and published in this highly cited journal. It also contains invited review and interpretation articles and perspectives that offer insight and commentary on recent advances in crop science. For more information, visit http://crop.scijournals.org

The Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), founded in 1955, is an international scientific society comprised of 6,000+ members with its headquarters in Madison, WI. Members advance the discipline of crop science by acquiring and disseminating information about crop breeding and genetics; crop physiology; crop ecology, management, and quality; seed physiology, production, and technology; turfgrass science; forage and grazinglands; genomics, molecular genetics, and biotechnology; and biomedical and enhanced plants.

CSSA fosters the transfer of knowledge through an array of programs and services, including publications, meetings, career services, and science policy initiatives. For more information, visit www.crops.org

Sara Uttech | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.crops.org

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture
05.10.2017 | Oregon State University

nachricht New machine evaluates soybean at harvest for quality
04.10.2017 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>