Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Calculating phosphorus and calcium concentrations in meat and bone meal for pig diets

Following the drought of 2012, the prices of corn and soybean meal for livestock diets have increased significantly.

In an effort to reduce their costs, pork producers are looking for alternative sources of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Researchers at the University of Illinois have developed equations for calculating the concentrations of these minerals in byproducts from the rendering industry.

Professor of animal sciences Hans H. Stein and his team determined the digestibility of Ca and P in meat and bone meal (MBM), which is traditionally used as a source of protein in animal diets. MBM contains greater concentrations of Ca and P than all plant feed ingredients, so it can replace inorganic phosphates in swine diets without harming the bones or negatively affecting growth of the animals.

However, to use MBM effectively as a source of P and Ca, producers need an accurate assessment of the digestibility of these minerals when fed to pigs.

"There is quite a bit of variability in meat and bone meal, which is probably caused by different types of raw materials going into it," Stein said.

The researchers formulated eight diets using MBM from five companies in the United States. The ninth diet was P-free and was used to determine the endogenous losses of P from the animals. This value was used to calculate the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in the eight sources of MBM.

Results indicated that there is a negative correlation between ash content in MBM and digestibility of Ca and P, but all sources of MBM had a relatively high digestibility of Ca and P. Moreover, Ca and P concentrations varied two to four times more among the batches of MBM than protein and acid hydrolyzed ether extract concentrations. However, ash content had a highly significant positive correlation with Ca and P concentrations.

"Thus, if you know the concentration of ash, you can calculate the concentration of calcium and phosphorus," Stein said. "Ash is easy and inexpensive to analyze."

Stein and his team also developed equations to calculate Ca and P concentrations in MBM and proposed models for estimating STTD of P and Apparent Total Tract Digestibility (ATTD) of Ca.

The equations are presented and the research described in detail in the article "Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs" by R. C. Sulabo and H. H. Stein, which was recently published in the Journal of Animal Sciences (2013.91:1285-1294) and is available online at

Susan Jongeneel | EurekAlert!
Further information:

Further reports about: Calcium Calculating bone meal phosphorus raw material soybean meal

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Forest Management Yields Higher Productivity through Biodiversity
14.10.2016 | Technische Universität München

nachricht Farming with forests
23.09.2016 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences (ACES)

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

Im Focus: Ultra-thin ferroelectric material for next-generation electronics

'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.

Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia

21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine

Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions

21.10.2016 | Information Technology

From ancient fossils to future cars

21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>