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AZM alternatives for apple growers against codling moth

The EPA decision to phase out AZM by 2012 means tree fruit growers will need new management strategies

Azinphos-methyl (AZM) has been the most used insecticide in apple production in the United States since the late 1960s, primarily as a control for the codling moth, but a decision by the EPA to phase out AZM by 2012 signals the end of this product's use by tree fruit growers.

In recent years, many new insecticides have been registered to replace AZM. These new insecticides have unique modes of action, but growers will need to change their traditional management practices to achieve the level of control they were accustomed to with AZM, according to a new open-access article in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management.

In "Incorporating Organophosphate Alternative Insecticides into Codling Moth Management," scientists from Washington State University write about field trials conducted from 2004 to 2008 which explored new application timings and strategies that incorporated insecticides with different modes of action and targeted life stages.

The researchers found that the new insecticides could not provide fruit protection that was superior to the protection provided with AZM. However, strategies were developed that in many cases allowed equivalent control levels to those of the codling moth program based on AZM.

The most successful strategies employed insecticides that targeted both eggs (ovicides) and larvae (larvicides). An insect growth regulator applied at the start of the oviposition period, followed by two larvicide applications that targeted the peak egg-hatch period, provided fruit protection equivalent to the protection given by AZM applied twice.

The full article is availabe for free at
The Journal of Integrated Pest Management ( is an open-access, peer-reviewed, extension journal covering the field of integrated pest management. The intended readership for the journal is any professional who is engaged in any aspect of integrated pest management, including, but not limited to, crop producers, individuals working in crop protection, retailers, manufacturers and suppliers of pest management products, educators, and pest control operators.

JIPM is published by the Entomological Society of America (ESA), the largest organization in the world serving the professional and scientific needs of entomologists and people in related disciplines. Founded in 1889, ESA today has more than 6,000 members affiliated with educational institutions, health agencies, private industry, and government. Members are students, researchers, teachers, extension service personnel, administrators, marketing representatives, research technicians, consultants, and hobbyists.

Dr. Jay F. Brunner | EurekAlert!
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