Roses are one of the leading cut flowers in the global floriculture trade. In the last few years, cut flower consumption and the market for high-quality flowers has increased in Pakistan as a result of the country's rapid economic growth, improved living standards, enhanced access to electronic media, and increasing demand from the country's growing hospitality industry.
In Pakistan, where seasonable climatic conditions provide ideal environments for cut flowers, rose production generates employment opportunities in rural areas where few other jobs exist. But industry challenges, including a lack of standardized production techniques, limited availability of greenhouses, and lack of professional education for growers, are delaying efforts to put Pakistan on the map as a cut flower exporter. A study published in HortTechnology reported on the present status and future prospects of cut rose flower production and postharvest management in Punjab, Pakistan.
The researchers found that although cut roses were the leading flower crop in the area, production systems and practices were outdated and primitive, and the quality of cut stems produced was not acceptable in international markets.
While all of the growers interviewed for the study reported that they sold their products in local markets in Pakistan, none said they exported their flowers. Producers indicated that they were limited to local sales because of factors such as lack of cooperation from government organizations, ignorance of international standards, and poor-quality production. "The growers with limited or no education felt that their product quality was too low to allow exporting, whereas more educated growers felt that the lack of support from the government prevented them from exporting", said Iftikhar Ahmad, an assistant professor in the Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan (who conducted the survey) and John Dole, a professor in the Department of Horticultural Science at North Carolina State University, and corresponding author of the study. Ahmad, Dole, and research colleagues from the Institute of Horticultural Sciences at the University of Agriculture in Faisalabad said that Pakistan's rose growers need more training in production and postharvest management to increase their product quality to international standards.
The research revealed several positive trends in the cut rose businesses, finding that more than half of growers (52%) entered the business during the last five years and 30% of the study's growers had been in business over 10 years. "That almost half of the producers started growing roses in the last five years is a positive sign for development of the rose industry as a non-traditional high value crop to incorporate into traditional wheat–rice or wheat–cotton cropping pattern in the province. Experienced growers were maintaining plants in production for a longer period as compared with newer producers", the scientists explained.
Growing conditions pose unique challenges for Pakistan's cut flower growers. Because of the country's hot summer temperatures, good-quality flowers can be produced only from October to March. "Few growers in Pakistan have sufficient capital to afford the construction of greenhouses and the high cost of energy required to operate them. Since most growers have small landholdings, it is unlikely that they can save sufficient capital to construct a greenhouse without support by governmental or other agencies. However, 14-33% of the growers who had been in business more than five years were using greenhouses, indicating that they were successful enough to afford the greenhouses", said Ahmad. The researchers noted that the use of high tunnels may be a lower-cost alternative to greenhouses.
The study concluded that cut rose production has great potential to expand in Pakistan. The team recommended that the industry adopt more modern techniques and innovations and assist growers by providing access to training. Other recommendations included: planting elite cultivars, improving infrastructural facilities, providing interest-free loans, and offering assistance in marketing.
"Although public and private sector negligence has resulted in less than optimum growth of this sector, its potential has now been realized and initiatives are being taken by various organizations for boosting the industry in Pakistan", the authors concluded. They noted that the study can serve as a model for other countries where cut flowers industries are at a similar stage of development.
The complete study and abstract are available on the ASHS HortTechnology electronic journal web site: http://horttech.ashspublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/20/6/1010
Founded in 1903, the American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) is the largest organization dedicated to advancing all facets of horticultural research, education, and application. More information at ashs.org
Michael W. Neff | EurekAlert!
Ammonium nitrogen input increases the synthesis of anticarcinogenic compounds in broccoli
26.04.2017 | University of the Basque Country
New data unearths pesticide peril in beehives
21.04.2017 | Cornell University
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences