Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A modernised methodology for obtaining new varieties of potato

02.12.2009
Research into the potato tuber at the Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development and at the NEIKER-Tecnalia Technology Centre has, in recent years, focused on the development of new varieties of potato adapted to Spanish agro-climatic conditions.

The Basque technology centre has updated the traditional system for improving strains of the tuber by involving novel techniques that enable obtaining new varieties that are the most resistant, productive and apt for both fresh consumption and for industrial processing. In 2009 three new varieties have been inscribed in the Spanish Office for Plant Varieties, the Basque names of which are Leire, Mirari y Harana.

The genetic improvement programme for obtaining new varieties developed by NEIKER-Tecnalia are focused on the following characteristics:

- Morphological and physiological: a good appearance of the plant, with homogeneous tubers, thin skin, eyes at a surface level, high yield, stability in production, short cycle and good conservation.

- Resistance to pests and disease: resistance to one or more of the following pathogens: viruses (mainly PVY); nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) and fungi (Phytophthora infestans, Rhizocotnia solani, Alternaria solani, Fusarium spp.).

- Culinary quality: for both fresh consumption and for industrial processing: chips, frozen potatoes and purees, amongst others.

In recent years NEIKER-Tecnalia has incorporated various complementing methodologies into the traditional and predominant one – such as the enhancement of the diploid level, the cultivation of tissues applied to the maintenance and micropropagation of varieties, selection assisted by means of molecular markers and genotyping.

Classical improvement programmes are based on the creation of variability by means of directed crosses and the subsequent selection of the desired descendent genotypes and in successive clonal generations. The three initial and fundamental phases in the process are: selection of genitors, programme of crosses and the selection of seedlings in the first generation.

The selection of genitors is one of the key elements in the NEIKER-Tecnalia programme; it has a Germoplasm Bank with 500 commercial varieties, apart from enhancement clones and species of the Solanum genus that form part of parentals employed in the crossing programmes. This database may be consulted at: www.neiker.net/neiker/germoplasma.

Crosses are mainly undertaken in winter. In the female genitors the stalks with inflorescences are cut, the buds castrated and then pollination carried out, keeping the stems in jars with water, fungicide and antibiotic, in a greenhouse. If the pollination has been successful, berries are formed, each of which may contain up to 200 seeds.

Once the seeds are mature, their extraction and conservation are carried out. The descendency of each crossing is sowed separately in seed beds. Families from parentals immune to the Y virus (PVY) are inoculated artificially, eliminating seedlings with symptoms. The rest is transplanted to pots in order to obtain the first year clones. During the gathering a more intense selection is carried out, taking into consideration the appearance of the tuber: homogeneity, depth of the eyes, colour of the peel and the flesh.

In this way, the sowing of the selected clones is undertaken successively, following a procedure that enables an estimate of production. Based on advanced, third-year clones, the analyses of consumption quality – both fresh and industrial – are incorporated.

Third generation clones are sent to a Spanish trials network, which distributes them to different zones throughout the country with the objective of being sown and consumed. Moreover, advanced clones are also sent to countries such as Holland, Germany and Argentina.

Based on the overall data on quality, resistance and production, the best clones are selected to be sent to the Registry of Commercial Varieties at the Spanish office for Plant Varieties. After two years of trials, the National Assessment Commission decides the inclusion or otherwise in the list of new varieties.

As can be observed, the period for obtaining official registration of a variety oscillates between six and seven years. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that it is an ongoing process, in which each year clones at all stages of selection coexist in a parallel manner.

Characterisation and evaluation of native varieties
Recently initiated has been the characterisation of varieties of the potato native to Latin America and belonging to the Solanum genus. To date, these valuable tubers have not been efficiently exploited due to the geographical isolation of their zones of origin. This is why NEIKER-Tecnalia, in collaboration with other institutions in Latin America, is undertaking a project to evaluate a series of native varieties with the goal of determining their nutritional characteristics and their quality and resistance features.

In this way, varieties have been found with high content of dry material and resistant to fungi. The final goal is their incorporation as parentals in the NEIKER-Tecnalia programme for obtaining new varieties.

Irati Kortabitarte | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.elhuyar.com

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture
05.10.2017 | Oregon State University

nachricht New machine evaluates soybean at harvest for quality
04.10.2017 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

Im Focus: New nanomaterial can extract hydrogen fuel from seawater

Hybrid material converts more sunlight and can weather seawater's harsh conditions

It's possible to produce hydrogen to power fuel cells by extracting the gas from seawater, but the electricity required to do it makes the process costly. UCF...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Plant escape from waterlogging

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Study suggests oysters offer hot spot for reducing nutrient pollution

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

17.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>