Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A modernised methodology for obtaining new varieties of potato

02.12.2009
Research into the potato tuber at the Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development and at the NEIKER-Tecnalia Technology Centre has, in recent years, focused on the development of new varieties of potato adapted to Spanish agro-climatic conditions.

The Basque technology centre has updated the traditional system for improving strains of the tuber by involving novel techniques that enable obtaining new varieties that are the most resistant, productive and apt for both fresh consumption and for industrial processing. In 2009 three new varieties have been inscribed in the Spanish Office for Plant Varieties, the Basque names of which are Leire, Mirari y Harana.

The genetic improvement programme for obtaining new varieties developed by NEIKER-Tecnalia are focused on the following characteristics:

- Morphological and physiological: a good appearance of the plant, with homogeneous tubers, thin skin, eyes at a surface level, high yield, stability in production, short cycle and good conservation.

- Resistance to pests and disease: resistance to one or more of the following pathogens: viruses (mainly PVY); nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) and fungi (Phytophthora infestans, Rhizocotnia solani, Alternaria solani, Fusarium spp.).

- Culinary quality: for both fresh consumption and for industrial processing: chips, frozen potatoes and purees, amongst others.

In recent years NEIKER-Tecnalia has incorporated various complementing methodologies into the traditional and predominant one – such as the enhancement of the diploid level, the cultivation of tissues applied to the maintenance and micropropagation of varieties, selection assisted by means of molecular markers and genotyping.

Classical improvement programmes are based on the creation of variability by means of directed crosses and the subsequent selection of the desired descendent genotypes and in successive clonal generations. The three initial and fundamental phases in the process are: selection of genitors, programme of crosses and the selection of seedlings in the first generation.

The selection of genitors is one of the key elements in the NEIKER-Tecnalia programme; it has a Germoplasm Bank with 500 commercial varieties, apart from enhancement clones and species of the Solanum genus that form part of parentals employed in the crossing programmes. This database may be consulted at: www.neiker.net/neiker/germoplasma.

Crosses are mainly undertaken in winter. In the female genitors the stalks with inflorescences are cut, the buds castrated and then pollination carried out, keeping the stems in jars with water, fungicide and antibiotic, in a greenhouse. If the pollination has been successful, berries are formed, each of which may contain up to 200 seeds.

Once the seeds are mature, their extraction and conservation are carried out. The descendency of each crossing is sowed separately in seed beds. Families from parentals immune to the Y virus (PVY) are inoculated artificially, eliminating seedlings with symptoms. The rest is transplanted to pots in order to obtain the first year clones. During the gathering a more intense selection is carried out, taking into consideration the appearance of the tuber: homogeneity, depth of the eyes, colour of the peel and the flesh.

In this way, the sowing of the selected clones is undertaken successively, following a procedure that enables an estimate of production. Based on advanced, third-year clones, the analyses of consumption quality – both fresh and industrial – are incorporated.

Third generation clones are sent to a Spanish trials network, which distributes them to different zones throughout the country with the objective of being sown and consumed. Moreover, advanced clones are also sent to countries such as Holland, Germany and Argentina.

Based on the overall data on quality, resistance and production, the best clones are selected to be sent to the Registry of Commercial Varieties at the Spanish office for Plant Varieties. After two years of trials, the National Assessment Commission decides the inclusion or otherwise in the list of new varieties.

As can be observed, the period for obtaining official registration of a variety oscillates between six and seven years. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that it is an ongoing process, in which each year clones at all stages of selection coexist in a parallel manner.

Characterisation and evaluation of native varieties
Recently initiated has been the characterisation of varieties of the potato native to Latin America and belonging to the Solanum genus. To date, these valuable tubers have not been efficiently exploited due to the geographical isolation of their zones of origin. This is why NEIKER-Tecnalia, in collaboration with other institutions in Latin America, is undertaking a project to evaluate a series of native varieties with the goal of determining their nutritional characteristics and their quality and resistance features.

In this way, varieties have been found with high content of dry material and resistant to fungi. The final goal is their incorporation as parentals in the NEIKER-Tecnalia programme for obtaining new varieties.

Irati Kortabitarte | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.elhuyar.com

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht How much drought can a forest take?
20.01.2017 | University of California - Davis

nachricht Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product
02.12.2016 | Purdue University

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Quantum optical sensor for the first time tested in space – with a laser system from Berlin

For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.

According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Tracking movement of immune cells identifies key first steps in inflammatory arthritis

23.01.2017 | Health and Medicine

Electrocatalysis can advance green transition

23.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New technology for mass-production of complex molded composite components

23.01.2017 | Process Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>