Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

World’s First Success in In Situ Tracking of Electrochemical Reactions at Solid/Liquid Interfaces by Photoelectron Spectroscopy

31.10.2013
The results may elucidate the process at solid/liquid interfaces of energy devices like rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. It will also contribute to the development and performance of cell electrodes and catalyst materials.
National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)
Japan Science and Technology Agency
A research group led by NIMS GREEN and JST, in collaboration with WPI-MANA and the Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, developed a new measurement system using high-energy X-rays of SPring-8 and a Si thin-membrane window. Through this achievement, the group succeeded for the first time in the world in tracking electrochemical reactions at solid/liquid interfaces in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which could only be used for measurement in a vacuum in the past.

Layout of the In Situ XPS Measurement System

A research group led by Prof. Dr. Kohei Uosaki, Research Manager of the Batteries and Fuel Cells Field at the Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based on Nanomaterials Science (GREEN) of the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) and Dr. Takuya Masuda, Researcher of the Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO) program at the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), in collaboration with NIMS International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA) and the Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, developed a new measurement system using high-energy X-rays of SPring-8 and a silicon (Si) thin-membrane window. Through this achievement, the group succeeded for the first time in the world in tracking electrochemical reactions at solid/liquid interfaces in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which could only be used for measurement in a vacuum in the past.

A solid/liquid interface is an important part that converts and uses energy in familiar energy devices, such as fuel cells and solar cells. Recent research and development which aims to maximize the efficiency of energy use faces the need to break away from materials development dependent on empirical rules and to adopt clear evaluation methods that enable strategic materials design. Accordingly, there has been a strong desire for methods to directly observe and measure the dynamic behavior of reactions at solid/liquid interfaces in the environment where the reactions are taking place (in situ). Meanwhile, XPS is a method to investigate the surface species and oxidation states of the surface of a substance by irradiating the substance with X-rays and analyzing the energy of the photoelectrons emitted from the elements on the surface. Conventionally, XPS could only be used for measurement in a vacuum, and could not be used to directly observe the reactions at solid/liquid interfaces in situ.

The research group succeeded in observing the electrochemical reactions at a solid/liquid interface in a non-vacuum environment in situ by having high-energy synchrotron X-rays of SPring-8 penetrate through a thin Si membrane window with a thickness of 15 nm. Specifically, the group developed a measurement system that uses a thin Si membrane as a window for transmitting X-rays and photoelectrons, as a barrier separating a vacuum and a liquid, and as an electrode for electrochemical reactions, and uses the high-energy synchrotron X-rays of SPring-8 to detect, on the vacuum side (through the thin membrane), the photoelectrons that have been emitted at the interface between the thin Si membrane window (solid) and the liquid. With this system, the group succeeded in in situ observation of potential-induced Si oxide growth in water.

The research results are expected to further elucidate the process at solid/liquid interfaces of major energy devices such as rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. At the same time, they are expected to contribute to the development and better performance of important parts such as cell electrodes and catalyst materials as a result of clarifying the reaction mechanism and problems in existing materials. In particular, quantitative investigation of the composition and oxidation states of interfaces, which was difficult in the past, becomes possible, which helps illuminate the deterioration mechanism of electrodes and electrolytes through identification of side reactions and the products of the reactions. Also, since XPS has been used for materials design and development in diverse fields including the industrial field and the medical field, the research results are expected to contribute to elucidating the mechanism of a broad range of phenomena in which interface reactions play an important role in those fields.

This research was conducted as part of the “Program for Development of Environmental Technology using Nanotechnology” entrusted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and as part of the “Phase Interfaces for Highly Efficient Energy Utilization” research domain (Research Supervisor: Nobuhide Kasagi) of Individual Type Research (PRESTO) of the JST Strategic Basic Research Program, and the research results were published in the online preliminary edition of Applied Physics Letters, an applied physics journal published by the American Institute of Physics, at 3:00 a.m., September 13, 2013 (JST).

Mikiko Tanifuji | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.nims.go.jp/eng/news/press/2013/10/p201309180.html
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Decoding cement's shape promises greener concrete
08.12.2016 | Rice University

nachricht Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D
08.12.2016 | DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Closing the carbon loop

08.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Applicability of dynamic facilitation theory to binary hard disk systems

08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D

08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>