A recently completed research project at the Hohenstein Institute shows how to make sports textiles with outstanding sun protection and wear comfort , and offers design tips for producers.
As part of a research project on "The total energy transmittance of clothing" (IGF No. 17655 N), the Hohenstein Institute has been researching how the structure of the textile and the length of the garment affect people's thermal comfort in intense sunlight. From their work, the scientists have derived some design tips on how to make sportswear that provides the best possible protection from harmful UV radiation and the heat of the sun, while at the same time being very comfortable to wear. The results give sportswear producers and retailers the opportunity to open up new product segments with this kind of improved garment. For end users, these textiles offer a better way of protecting themselves from skin cancers such as "white skin cancer".
Following evaluation of the laboratory tests, wearing trials were carried out using subjects, to further validate the optimised test samples.
© Hohenstein Institute
Current problems with sports textiles in summer
In summer, endurance athletes and people who work mainly outdoors are exposed to direct sunlight for several hours at a time and so they have to protect themselves from harmful UV radiation. Long-sleeved clothing and sun blocking creams do offer some protection from UV radiation, but during intense physical or sporting activity they reduce the dissipation of heat through the skin – and this ultimately affects the wearer's performance. On the other hand, short-sleeved clothing allows sweat to evaporate and so cools the body down, but it offers no protection from either carcinogenic UV radiation or infrared thermal radiation.
Starting point and structure
The aim of the research was to examine systematically the relationship between thermoregulation and sun protection. The innovative concept at the heart of the research project was that the scientists would, for the first time, study the effect of textile construction (fibre material, colour, finishing treatment) on clothing physiology properties, UV protection and IR protection.
In the first step, the researchers selected six different textile base materials in which the main fibres were polyester (PES), polyamide (PA) and Lyocell/polypropylene (CLY/PP). Then, in the next step, these were treated with red and black dyes and three UV protection agents.
The textile samples were tested for their UV protection under UV Standard 801 and for the protection they offered against hot sunshine in accordance with DIN EN 410 (total energy transmittance), and also with regard to their heat and moisture management, with the help of the Hohenstein Skin Model and skin sensorial measuring devices.
In the next step, the samples that were particularly good at thermoregulation were made into shirts and trousers with sleeves and legs of different lengths. Then these garments, worn by a thermal manikin, were exposed to a specific amount of heat radiation to simulate warming by the sun - which varied depending on the length of the garment. Finally, following evaluation of the laboratory tests, wearing trials were carried out using volunteers, to further validate the best test samples.
Results: how to make the best possible summer sportswear
It emerged that the ideal blend of fibres should consist of CLY/PP/PA, because fabrics made of CLY/PP are very comfortable to wear and, when combined with PA fibres, also offer a high degree of UV protection. Dyeing the textiles red or black significantly increased the UV protection compared with the white samples, and proved to be more effective than applying the chosen UV-protection agents to the textile.
At the same time, less heat passes through the red and black textiles, but this is at the cost of more heat being absorbed by the textile. In summer and in direct sunshine, sportsmen and -women should opt for loose clothing, because this means the heat that is absorbed is not transmitted straight on to the skin.
Long-sleeved clothing offers better UV protection than short sleeves, because more of the body is covered. However, since the arms are more exposed to the sun than the legs, ideally you should combine long-sleeved sports tops with shorts.
To find out more information about this research project and view the detailed research report, please contact the project manager, sports engineer Martin Harnisch (email@example.com).
Marianna Diener | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Superconductivity research reveals potential new state of matter
17.08.2017 | DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory
Spray-on electric rainbows: Making safer electrochromic inks
17.08.2017 | Georgia Institute of Technology
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
17.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
17.08.2017 | Earth Sciences
17.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy