Hard tissues of organisms, such as bones and shells, are composed of inorganic minerals (biominerals). While these substances are created by biomineralization, which will be discussed later, many uncertainties remain in the mechanism.
Research scientists at Tohoku University have been conducting studies designed to elucidate the crystal growth mechanisms of shells, in which a calcium carbonate crystal, which is normally stable only in a high-pressure phase, is formed under normal temperature and pressure conditions.
It is necessary to observe the atomic structural changes of the growing crystal surface in solution. Under such circumstances, a system capable of high-resolution surface observation in a liquid environment would be ideal.
Tsukamoto and Araki learned that the atomic force microscope (AFM) probe system developed by the Yamada group at Kyoto University could operate under such conditions and was available for use via the Kyoto Advanced Nanotechnology Network; an application was made for joint utilization and support.
By using the FM-AFM system, based on leading-edge frequency-modulation atomic force microscope (FM-AFM) technology, they successfully observed the calcium carbonate crystal growth process in solution on the atomic level.
Transporting spin: A graphene and boron nitride heterostructure creates large spin signals
16.08.2017 | Graphene Flagship
From hot to cold: How to move objects at the nanoscale
10.08.2017 | Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
Researchers from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and the Instituto Geofisico--Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IGEPN) of Ecuador, showed an increasing volcanic danger on Cotopaxi in Ecuador using a powerful technique known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR).
The Andes region in which Cotopaxi volcano is located is known to contain some of the world's most serious volcanic hazard. A mid- to large-size eruption has...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
16.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
16.08.2017 | Materials Sciences
16.08.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research