Thanks to the use of strong and stiff DuPont™ SentryGlas® interlayers, the glazing – which reaches up to the carriage’s ceiling – can be produced at a very low thickness yet provides high levels of safety.
Low-weight thanks to the high stiffness of DuPont™ SentryGlas® interlayers: curved panels of laminated safety glass from FLACHGLAS Wernberg prevent passengers from falling to the lower floor of Stadler Rail’s new double-decker trains, even in the event of an emergency stop or an accident.
When produced in their opaque form, the panels act as a so-called “privacy wall” – thereby adopting both a protective and visually separative function. In contrast, the panels for the second glass carriages are mostly produced with a high degree of clarity, providing the impression of openness and space.
Accordingly, the elegantly curved panels also fulfil a principal requirement that applies to all forms of transport – the reduction of weight wherever possible. The Swiss Federal Railways (Schweizerischen Bundesbahnen or SBB) will start to operate the new RABe 511 trains during 2011.
Laminated safety glass with SentryGlas® interlayers combines a multitude of benefits when compared to standard alternatives. For example, a similarly lightweight toughened safety glass would require the use of an additional guardrail because it will break into a thousand pieces when overloaded – for instance if struck by heavy, sharp-edged luggage during an emergency stop. Even the use of an externally-applied shatter protective film provides only a slight improvement. On top of this, there is always the risk of a spontaneous breakage caused by a nickel sulphide inclusion. Martin Rädel, sales manager for transport at FLACHGLAS Wernberg adds: “Stadler Rail sought a safe solution for every eventuality, which would neither require a guardrail, nor would it be heavier than toughened safety glass. By using SIGLAPLUS® with SentryGlas® interlayers, we have been able to provide them with a solution.”
“In general, a principal benefit of laminated safety glass is that the glass fragments remain stuck to the interlayer, significantly reducing the risk to passengers. Moreover, the glass panel remains intact overall, and is still capable of withstanding relatively high loads,” explains Ingo Stelzer, design specialist at DuPont Glas Laminating Solutions. “By using high stiffness SentryGlas® interlayers instead of standard PVB (polyvinyl butyral), the glass laminate is able to withstand greater loads and can therefore be produced at a comparably lower thickness. Moreover, should the glass break, the DuPont interlayer ensures a considerably higher post breakage strength than PVB. Accordingly, and despite the use of point fixings in the new trains, it is able to provide sufficient resistance to prevent passengers and luggage from falling to the lower floor of the carriage.”
In order to emphasise these benefits, DuPont carried out finite element calculations to understand the behaviour of different glass structures when subjected to a centralised load of 5 kN (500 kg). They show that laminated safety glass with a PVB interlayer needs to be produced at a thickness of 17.52 mm (8 mm glass/1.52 mm PVB/8 mm glass) in order to obtain the same level of resistance to deformation as a 10 mm thick panel of toughened safety glass. Stelzer continues: “When using a SentryGlas® interlayer, which is also 1.52 mm thick, then two glass panels each with a thickness of just 5 mm are sufficient to replicate the performance of toughened safety glass. Accordingly, the weight saving in comparison to standard laminated safety glass with PVB is close to 40 %. The difference in weight to toughened safety glass is purely down to the low additional weight of the interlayer.” Further calculations revealed that a laminate construction consisting of just two 4 mm-thick panes of heat-strengthened glass and a 0.9 mm thick SentryGlas® interlayer would suffice to meet current regulations such as UIC 566 “Loadings of coach bodies and their components”.
Comprehensive laboratory testing conducted by FLACHGLAS Wernberg, which included pendulum impact tests from a great height, confirmed DuPont’s calculations. “The glass panels supplied to Stadler Rail, each 800 mm wide and 1370 mm high, are indeed neither thicker nor heavier than their toughened safety glass counterparts,” confirms Martin Rädel. “Nevertheless, they meet the very high safety requirements demanded of them for the application, and without increasing energy use of the train itself.”
Using the screen printing process, FLACHGLAS Wernberg applies two different finishes to the balustrade panels with SentryGlas® interlayers. In its opaque form, the balustrade acts as a so-called “privacy wall” for passengers in the first class carriages, performing a visually separative function. In the second class carriages, the panels are mostly produced with a high degree of clarity, providing an impression of openness and space. “The SBB will use our new trains on the Zurich district line, and the demands placed on the glass panels will be correspondingly high,” explains Andreas Lunardon, who, as interior engineering manager at Stadler Rail, was very much involved in the specification of the glass. “The manufacturer designed the SIGLAPLUS® laminated safety glass panels in such a way that they remain durably attractive in the long-term, even despite such tough conditions. The surface, including the printed sections, is extremely scratch resistant. The very high edge stability of laminates made with SentryGlas® interlayers means that the panels will retain their crystal-clear transparency even at the edges – and this for the full duration of their expected lifetime of close to 40 years and despite intensive cleaning with highly-effective aggressive agents.”
Stadler Rail will supply a total of 50 double-decker trains to the SBB as from 2011. Divided into six sections, the 150 metre long trains weigh 296 tons and achieve a top speed of 160 km/h (100 mph). They each have space for 1694 passengers, 535 of whom can be seated. A later order has been placed for a further 24 trains, in this case divided into four sections, to be used on the SBBs regional express lines. “Our positive experience with this lightweight form of laminated safety glass has led to its planned use by Stadler Rail in future double-decker projects currently under development.”
FLACHGLAS Wernberg GmbH is part of the FLACHGLAS Wernberg Gruppe and represents seven decades of expertise in glass refinement. One of the leading glass processors in Europe, the company’s approximately 1000 employees produce insulating and safety glass on modern glass production machinery within the company’s six sites in Germany and Switzerland. With a total of 630 employees, Wernberg is the company’s largest site with very high levels of technical production capability. Its products are principally use for glazing in construction, railway and shipping.
Stadler Rail Group, system supplier of customer-specific solutions for rail vehicle construction, has locations in Switzerland (Altenrhein, Bussnang and Winterthur), in Germany (Berlin-Pankow and Velten), in Poland (Siedlce), in Hungary (Budapest, Pusztaszabolcs and Szolnok), in the Czech Republic (Prague), in Italy (Merano) and in Algeria (Algiers). The Group has a workforce of over 3,000 people around the world. The best-known vehicle series from Stadler Rail Group are the articulated multiple-unit trains GTW (539 trains sold), the Regio-Shuttle RS1 (450 trains sold), the FLIRT (618 trains sold), the double-decker DOSTO (125 trains sold) in the railway segment, and the Variobahn (284 trains sold) and the newly-developed Tango (122 trains sold) in the tram segment. Furthermore Stadler Rail manufactures passenger carriages and locomotives and is the world’s leading manufacturer of rack-and-pinion rail vehicles.
DuPont Glass Laminating Solutions provides materials, services and innovations to makers and specifiers of laminated glass. It helps create a better world by improving home protection and automotive safety, and enabling design of stronger, more energy-efficient buildings that let in more natural light.
DuPont is a science-based products and services company. Founded in 1802, DuPont puts science to work by creating sustainable solutions essential to a better, safer, healthier life for people everywhere. Operating in more than 70 countries, DuPont offers a wide range of innovative products and services for markets including agriculture and food; building and construction; communications; and transportation.
SIGLAPLUS® is a registered trademark of FLACHGLAS Wernberg
The DuPont Oval, DuPont™ and SentryGlas® are registered trademarks or trademarks of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company or its affiliates.
GLS-EU-2010-05Note to the editor:
Birgit Radlinger | DuPont
Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet
18.08.2017 | Aalto University
Superconductivity research reveals potential new state of matter
17.08.2017 | DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
18.08.2017 | Life Sciences
18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences