Thanks to the use of strong and stiff DuPont™ SentryGlas® interlayers, the glazing – which reaches up to the carriage’s ceiling – can be produced at a very low thickness yet provides high levels of safety.
Low-weight thanks to the high stiffness of DuPont™ SentryGlas® interlayers: curved panels of laminated safety glass from FLACHGLAS Wernberg prevent passengers from falling to the lower floor of Stadler Rail’s new double-decker trains, even in the event of an emergency stop or an accident.
When produced in their opaque form, the panels act as a so-called “privacy wall” – thereby adopting both a protective and visually separative function. In contrast, the panels for the second glass carriages are mostly produced with a high degree of clarity, providing the impression of openness and space.
Accordingly, the elegantly curved panels also fulfil a principal requirement that applies to all forms of transport – the reduction of weight wherever possible. The Swiss Federal Railways (Schweizerischen Bundesbahnen or SBB) will start to operate the new RABe 511 trains during 2011.
Laminated safety glass with SentryGlas® interlayers combines a multitude of benefits when compared to standard alternatives. For example, a similarly lightweight toughened safety glass would require the use of an additional guardrail because it will break into a thousand pieces when overloaded – for instance if struck by heavy, sharp-edged luggage during an emergency stop. Even the use of an externally-applied shatter protective film provides only a slight improvement. On top of this, there is always the risk of a spontaneous breakage caused by a nickel sulphide inclusion. Martin Rädel, sales manager for transport at FLACHGLAS Wernberg adds: “Stadler Rail sought a safe solution for every eventuality, which would neither require a guardrail, nor would it be heavier than toughened safety glass. By using SIGLAPLUS® with SentryGlas® interlayers, we have been able to provide them with a solution.”
“In general, a principal benefit of laminated safety glass is that the glass fragments remain stuck to the interlayer, significantly reducing the risk to passengers. Moreover, the glass panel remains intact overall, and is still capable of withstanding relatively high loads,” explains Ingo Stelzer, design specialist at DuPont Glas Laminating Solutions. “By using high stiffness SentryGlas® interlayers instead of standard PVB (polyvinyl butyral), the glass laminate is able to withstand greater loads and can therefore be produced at a comparably lower thickness. Moreover, should the glass break, the DuPont interlayer ensures a considerably higher post breakage strength than PVB. Accordingly, and despite the use of point fixings in the new trains, it is able to provide sufficient resistance to prevent passengers and luggage from falling to the lower floor of the carriage.”
In order to emphasise these benefits, DuPont carried out finite element calculations to understand the behaviour of different glass structures when subjected to a centralised load of 5 kN (500 kg). They show that laminated safety glass with a PVB interlayer needs to be produced at a thickness of 17.52 mm (8 mm glass/1.52 mm PVB/8 mm glass) in order to obtain the same level of resistance to deformation as a 10 mm thick panel of toughened safety glass. Stelzer continues: “When using a SentryGlas® interlayer, which is also 1.52 mm thick, then two glass panels each with a thickness of just 5 mm are sufficient to replicate the performance of toughened safety glass. Accordingly, the weight saving in comparison to standard laminated safety glass with PVB is close to 40 %. The difference in weight to toughened safety glass is purely down to the low additional weight of the interlayer.” Further calculations revealed that a laminate construction consisting of just two 4 mm-thick panes of heat-strengthened glass and a 0.9 mm thick SentryGlas® interlayer would suffice to meet current regulations such as UIC 566 “Loadings of coach bodies and their components”.
Comprehensive laboratory testing conducted by FLACHGLAS Wernberg, which included pendulum impact tests from a great height, confirmed DuPont’s calculations. “The glass panels supplied to Stadler Rail, each 800 mm wide and 1370 mm high, are indeed neither thicker nor heavier than their toughened safety glass counterparts,” confirms Martin Rädel. “Nevertheless, they meet the very high safety requirements demanded of them for the application, and without increasing energy use of the train itself.”
Using the screen printing process, FLACHGLAS Wernberg applies two different finishes to the balustrade panels with SentryGlas® interlayers. In its opaque form, the balustrade acts as a so-called “privacy wall” for passengers in the first class carriages, performing a visually separative function. In the second class carriages, the panels are mostly produced with a high degree of clarity, providing an impression of openness and space. “The SBB will use our new trains on the Zurich district line, and the demands placed on the glass panels will be correspondingly high,” explains Andreas Lunardon, who, as interior engineering manager at Stadler Rail, was very much involved in the specification of the glass. “The manufacturer designed the SIGLAPLUS® laminated safety glass panels in such a way that they remain durably attractive in the long-term, even despite such tough conditions. The surface, including the printed sections, is extremely scratch resistant. The very high edge stability of laminates made with SentryGlas® interlayers means that the panels will retain their crystal-clear transparency even at the edges – and this for the full duration of their expected lifetime of close to 40 years and despite intensive cleaning with highly-effective aggressive agents.”
Stadler Rail will supply a total of 50 double-decker trains to the SBB as from 2011. Divided into six sections, the 150 metre long trains weigh 296 tons and achieve a top speed of 160 km/h (100 mph). They each have space for 1694 passengers, 535 of whom can be seated. A later order has been placed for a further 24 trains, in this case divided into four sections, to be used on the SBBs regional express lines. “Our positive experience with this lightweight form of laminated safety glass has led to its planned use by Stadler Rail in future double-decker projects currently under development.”
FLACHGLAS Wernberg GmbH is part of the FLACHGLAS Wernberg Gruppe and represents seven decades of expertise in glass refinement. One of the leading glass processors in Europe, the company’s approximately 1000 employees produce insulating and safety glass on modern glass production machinery within the company’s six sites in Germany and Switzerland. With a total of 630 employees, Wernberg is the company’s largest site with very high levels of technical production capability. Its products are principally use for glazing in construction, railway and shipping.
Stadler Rail Group, system supplier of customer-specific solutions for rail vehicle construction, has locations in Switzerland (Altenrhein, Bussnang and Winterthur), in Germany (Berlin-Pankow and Velten), in Poland (Siedlce), in Hungary (Budapest, Pusztaszabolcs and Szolnok), in the Czech Republic (Prague), in Italy (Merano) and in Algeria (Algiers). The Group has a workforce of over 3,000 people around the world. The best-known vehicle series from Stadler Rail Group are the articulated multiple-unit trains GTW (539 trains sold), the Regio-Shuttle RS1 (450 trains sold), the FLIRT (618 trains sold), the double-decker DOSTO (125 trains sold) in the railway segment, and the Variobahn (284 trains sold) and the newly-developed Tango (122 trains sold) in the tram segment. Furthermore Stadler Rail manufactures passenger carriages and locomotives and is the world’s leading manufacturer of rack-and-pinion rail vehicles.
DuPont Glass Laminating Solutions provides materials, services and innovations to makers and specifiers of laminated glass. It helps create a better world by improving home protection and automotive safety, and enabling design of stronger, more energy-efficient buildings that let in more natural light.
DuPont is a science-based products and services company. Founded in 1802, DuPont puts science to work by creating sustainable solutions essential to a better, safer, healthier life for people everywhere. Operating in more than 70 countries, DuPont offers a wide range of innovative products and services for markets including agriculture and food; building and construction; communications; and transportation.
SIGLAPLUS® is a registered trademark of FLACHGLAS Wernberg
The DuPont Oval, DuPont™ and SentryGlas® are registered trademarks or trademarks of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company or its affiliates.
GLS-EU-2010-05Note to the editor:
Birgit Radlinger | DuPont
From ancient fossils to future cars
21.10.2016 | University of California - Riverside
Study explains strength gap between graphene, carbon fiber
20.10.2016 | Rice University
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences