A research group partly financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) is tackling this task.
Discovering the perfect composition of Portland cement, the most common type of cement, was the result of years of experience as well as repeated trials and errors. Emanuela Del Gado, SNSF professor at the Institute for Building Materials of the ETH Zurich, explains that its success is the result of two key factors: its legendary hardness and the availability of its constituent elements.5% of carbon dioxide emissions
Because of the massive ecological impact of cement production, various research groups worldwide are trying to understand why the mixture of this powder and water sets to such hardness.Different densities at the nano level
This is where physicist Emanuela Del Gado enters the scene. She takes a special interest in amorphous materials whose constituents combine in a disorderly manner. Her studies of such materials focus on the nano level. "It is at this level and not at the atomic level that certain material properties are revealed. This also applies to hydrated calcium silicate, a major component of cement which plays an important role in the setting process," she explains.
Until today, all attempts to reduce or partially replace burnt calcium carbonate in the production of cement have resulted in less material hardness. By gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms at the nano level, it is possible to identify physical and chemical parameters and to improve the carbon footprint of concrete without reducing its hardness.(*)E. Masoero, E. Del Gado, R. J.-M. Pellenq, F.-J. Ulm, and S. Yip (2012). Nanostructure and Nanomechanics of Cement: Polydisperse Colloidal Packing. Physical Review Letters. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.155503
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A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
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In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
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