Modern multi-nutrient fertilizers produced for home and agricultural use are formulated from multiple sources to provide significant amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the major plant nutrients, and lesser or even trace amounts of other nutrients needed by different crops, such as boron, calcium, iron and zinc.
Until relatively recently, fertilizers were tested and certified for their nutrient content, but little attention was paid to the possibility of heavy metal contaminants introduced by the mineral sources used to prepare the fertilizer. However, in response to incidents of heavy metal contamination of cropland, several states have enacted regulations in the past seven years that limit the amounts of some potentially hazardous non-nutritive elements in fertilizers. Several countries, including Japan, China, and Australia, and the European Union, also limit the amount of selected elements in fertilizers.
While fertilizer manufacturers and state regulatory authorities have needed to develop analytical methods to implement these regulations, until now there have been no certified reference materials available that they could use to validate the accuracy of their measurements. It can be difficult to measure accurately trace levels of some metals in a chemically complex mixture like fertilizer.
NIST's Standard Reference Material, SRM 695, "Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer," was developed in collaboration with members of the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials (AAPFCO) and The Fertilizer Institute (TFI) to help meet this need. SRM 695 is a typical multi-nutrient fertilizer certified for the content of both major elements and trace elements, including calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium, zinc, arsenic cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead and vanadium. Additional reference values are provided for aluminum, boron, nitrogen, phosphorous and selenium.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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