Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Purdue research suggests ’nanotubes’ could make better brain probes


Purdue University researchers have shown that extremely thin carbon fibers called "nanotubes" might be used to create brain probes and implants to study and treat neurological damage and disorders.

Probes made of silicon currently are used to study brain function and disease but may one day be used to apply electrical signals that restore damaged areas of the brain. A major drawback to these probes, however, is that they cause the body to produce scar tissue that eventually accumulates and prevents the devices from making good electrical contact with brain cells called neurons, said Thomas Webster, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering.

New findings showed that the nanotubes not only caused less scar tissue but also stimulated neurons to grow 60 percent more fingerlike extensions, called neurites, which are needed to regenerate brain activity in damaged regions, Webster said.

The findings are detailed in a paper appearing this month in the journal Nanotechnology, published by the Institute of Physics in the United Kingdom. The paper was written by Webster, Purdue doctoral students Janice L. McKenzie and Rachel L. Price, former postdoctoral fellow Jeremiah U. Ejiofor and visiting undergraduate student Michael C. Waid from the University of Nebraska.

The nanotubes were specially designed so that their surfaces contained tiny bumps measured in nanometers, or billionths of a meter. Conventional silicon probes do not contain the nanometer-scale surface features, causing the body to regard them as foreign invaders and surround them with scar tissue. Because the nanometer-scale features mimic those found on the surfaces of natural brain proteins and tissues, the nanotubes induce the formation of less scar tissue.

The scar tissue is produced by cells called astrocytes, which attach to the probes. The Purdue researchers discovered that about half as many astrocytes attach to the nanofibers compared to nanotubes that don’t have the small features.

"These astrocytes can’t make scar tissue unless they can adhere to the probe," Webster said. "Fewer astrocytes adhering to the nanotubes means less scar tissue will be produced."

The Purdue researchers pressed numerous nanofibers together to form discs and placed them in petri plates. Then the petri plates were filled with a liquid suspension of astrocytes. After one hour the nanotube disks were washed and a microscope was used to count how many of the dyed astrocytes washed out of the suspension, which enabled the researchers to calculate how many astrocytes stuck to the nanotubes. About 400 astrocytes per square centimeter adhered to the nanotubes containing the small surface features, compared to about 800 for nanotubes not containing the small surface features. The researchers repeated the experiment while leaving the nanotubes in the cell suspension for two weeks, yielding similar results.

When the nanotubes were placed in a suspension with neurons, the brain cells sprouted about five neurites, compared with the usual three neurites formed in suspensions with nanotubes that didn’t have the small surface features.

Researchers plan to make brain probes and implants out of a mixture of plastics and nanotubes. The findings demonstrated that progressively fewer astrocytes attached to this mixture as the concentration of nanotubes was increased and the concentration of plastics was decreased.

"That means if you increase the percentage of carbon nanofibers you can decrease the amount of scar tissue that might form around these electrodes," Webster said.

The nanometer-scale bumps mimic features found on the surface of a brain protein called laminin.

"Neurons recognize parts of that protein and latch onto it," Webster said.

The crucifix-shaped protein then helps neurons sprout neurites, while suppressing the formation of scar tissue.

The tube-shaped molecules of carbon have unusual properties that make them especially promising for these and other applications. Researchers theorize that electrons might flow more efficiently over extremely thin nanotubes than they do over conventional circuits, possibly enabling scientists to create better brain probes as well as non-silicon-based transistors and more powerful, compact computers.

"Nano" is a prefix meaning one-billionth, so a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, or roughly the length of 10 hydrogen atoms strung together. The nanotubes were about 100 nanometers wide, or roughly 1,000 times as thin as a human hair.

The research is funded by the National Science Foundation.

Webster also plans to test the effectiveness of silicon that contains the same sort of nanometer-scale features as the nanotubes, which could increase the performance of silicon probes and implants. In work with Spire Biomedical Inc. (Nasdaq:SPIR) in Bedford, Mass., Purdue researchers will analyze silicon that contains numerous pores, unlike conventional silicon, which has no such porous features. That research is funded by the National Science Foundation and the federal Small Business Innovation Research Program.

Writer: Emil Venere, (765) 494-4709,
Source: Thomas Webster, (765) 496-7516,
Purdue News Service: (765) 494-2096;

Note to Journalists: An electronic copy of the research paper is available from Emil Venere, (765) 494-4709,

Emil Venere | Purdue News
Further information:

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht From ancient fossils to future cars
21.10.2016 | University of California - Riverside

nachricht Study explains strength gap between graphene, carbon fiber
20.10.2016 | Rice University

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

Im Focus: Ultra-thin ferroelectric material for next-generation electronics

'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.

Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia

21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine

Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions

21.10.2016 | Information Technology

From ancient fossils to future cars

21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>