Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New material breakthrough: Super-hard graphite cracks diamond

17.10.2003


It is hard to imagine that graphite, the soft "lead" of pencils, can be transformed into a form that competes in strength with its molecular cousin diamond. Using a diamond anvil to produce extreme pressures and the ultra-brilliant X-ray beams at the Advanced Photon Source in Illinois, scientists with the High-Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT)* have surmounted experimental obstacles to probe the changes that graphite undergoes to produce this unique, super-hard substance. The study is reported in the October 17, issue of Science.



"Researchers have speculated for years on the extreme conditions that might change the molecular structure of graphite into a super-hard form that rivals diamond," said Wendy Mao, the study’s lead author from the Carnegie Institution’s Geophysical Laboratory in Washington, D.C., and the University of Chicago. "This experiment is the first to determine quantitatively how the bonding in graphite changes under high-pressure conditions. Conventional methods limited our observations to surface studies of the material," she stated. "Now, with the super high-intensity X-rays of the Argonne facility and with our team’s technology to focus the entire beam to a small spot, we’ve been able to look at the material in the diamond-anvil cell while under high pressure. We’ve overcome the obstacles of the past," she concluded.

Graphite and diamond are both made of carbon. The geometric arrangement and spacing of the carbon atoms is what makes the materials differ in appearance and strength. The atoms in graphite are arranged in layers that are widely spaced. The atoms in diamond, on the other hand, are tightly linked producing a strongly bonded structure. The HPCAT scientists subjected graphite to pressures that are equivalent to 170,000 times the pressure at sea level ( 17 gigapascals). "We were able to see how the structure changed at the atomic level when the graphite was squeezed into the super-hard form," remarked co-author Dave Mao of Carnegie’s Geophysical Laboratory. "The graphite that resulted from our experiment was so hard that when we released the pressure we saw that it had actually cracked the diamond anvil."


The super-hard from of graphite opens the door to a myriad of applications in industry particularly as a structural component.



* HPCAT is made up of researchers from the Carnegie Institution’s Geophysical Laboratory, the High-Pressure Physics Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the High Pressure Science and Engineering Center of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and the University of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology. Use of the HPCAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory for this work was funded by the Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

The Carnegie Institution of Washington (www.CarnegieInstitution.org) has been a pioneering force in basic scientific research since 1902. It is a private, nonprofit organization with six research departments in the U.S.: Plant Biology, Global Ecology, The Observatories, Embryology, the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, and the Geophysical Laboratory.

Wendy Mao | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.CarnegieInstitution.org

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Researchers shoot for success with simulations of laser pulse-material interactions
29.03.2017 | DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory

nachricht Nanomaterial makes laser light more applicable
28.03.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers shoot for success with simulations of laser pulse-material interactions

29.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Igniting a solar flare in the corona with lower-atmosphere kindling

29.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

As sea level rises, much of Honolulu and Waikiki vulnerable to groundwater inundation

29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>