Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Super multi-use minerals unveiled

23.06.2008
This material forms around a third of the average packet of washing powder and helps refine 99 per cent of the world's petrol*.

It is also used to clean up nuclear waste. This extremely useful material is a zeolite. In its natural form it originates from volcanoes but it is synthesised for commercial purposes. A European team of scientists has revealed, for the first time, its chemical structure using the ESRF. This research, published in Nature Materials on 22 June, opens doors to more effective zeolites in the future.

Zeolites are crystalline white minerals, mostly made of aluminium, silicon and oxygen. Their structure is like molecular scaffolding, similar to a sieve. Thanks to this structure, they are frequently used as a “molecular sieve”. This means that with their pores they can separate different molecules and cause different reactions, which are crucial in treating petrol and producing chemicals. Zeolites can also provoke ion exchange, which is useful in water softening or in the removal of nuclear waste (by filtering the radioactive components).

Due to their importance in industry, there is extensive research on zeolites world-wide. However, a crucial aspect about these minerals is still not known. Their functioning and effectiveness depends on different parameters, such as the size of their pores and the distribution of aluminium in the structure of the zeolites. However, the location of the active aluminium remains unknown in many of these materials.

The team from the ETH Zurich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Diamond Light source, the University of Torino and the University of Hamburg have determined unambiguously and directly the distribution of aluminium in zeolites using the technique of X-rays standing wave at the ESRF.

The object of the study was a scolecite zeolite, a natural mineral stemming from the zeolite-rich region of Puna in India. Natural zeolites are not so commonly used in industry because they tend to have more impurities than those synthesised, but they can be used in cleaning nuclear waste. After the Chernobyl catastrophe, tons of zeolites were used with the aim of cleaning the radioactively contaminated area.

The results from the experiments at the ESRF show optimism for the future of zeolites. “By being able to answer the question of where the active sites are, we open up the door to understanding the structure–performance relation. This will lead to ways of improving synthetic zeolites”, explains Jeroen van Bokhoven, corresponding author of the article in Nature Materials.

The next challenge for the team is to study synthetic zeolites with the same technique. Whilst natural zeolites, such as scolecite, contain crystals in the millimetre range, the synthetic ones tend to have much smaller grains, often not larger than a few micrometres. “We have also begun to investigate an industrial synthesised zeolite, but the study is as of yet not complete”, explains Joerg Zegenhagen, in charge of the ESRF beamline where experiments were carried out. “We are currently developing the different beamline elements so that in the very near future we can have the same exhaustive amount of information for synthetic zeolites as for scolecite”, he concludes.

*According to Material World, BBC4, 19 January 2006.

Montserrat Capellas | alfa
Further information:
http://www.esrf.fr/news/general/zeolites

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht New biomaterial could replace plastic laminates, greatly reduce pollution
21.09.2017 | Penn State

nachricht Stopping problem ice -- by cracking it
21.09.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

Im Focus: Fast, convenient & standardized: New lab innovation for automated tissue engineering & drug

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Comet or asteroid? Hubble discovers that a unique object is a binary

21.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Cnidarians remotely control bacteria

21.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?

21.09.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>