The trend toward combined fireworks (batteries and combinations) continues incessantly. The pyrotechnic effects have continued to improve significantly regarding colours and variations.
In comparison to the previous year the refusals decreased by 4 %. This positive improvement is due to the increasing influence of the importers on production control in China.
Fireworks without BAM approval or with falsified approval markings may be very risky. Their handling safety and quality level cannot be judged. Fireworks are not toys because they contain explosive substances and can give rise to dangerous effects.
An approval marking may for example read: BAM - P II - 2526
The new European Directive 2007/23/EG on placing on the market of pyrotechnical articles, including of course New Year's Eve fireworks, has come into force since this year.
The directive is supposed to reduce trade barriers and, in addition, harmonize the quality and safety of pyrotechnical articles in Europe. In the future only one "approval" will be necessary for Europe. The European Union member states have 30 months in which to implement this directive into national legislation. Naturally, this also applies to Germany where the implementation is being performed by the 4th Explosive Amendment Act. BAM seeks a fast implementation in order to quickly establish a uniform test procedure.
The Directive 2007/23/EG stipulates a modular conformity assessment procedure for pyrotechnical articles. A conformity assessment procedure proves that a rocket bought in the shop conforms to its certified prototype. The conformity assessment procedure basically consists of two parts. The first part is the type test according to module B. This corresponds to the current certification processes by BAM whereby BAM is one of the few institutes (notified body) in Europe which already carry out tests according to the European standards today.
The second part of the conformity assessment procedure guarantees constant product quality. For this purpose contracts are signed with the manufacturers to check their quality assurance system according to modules C, D or E.
Enquiries about currently offered goods and the exact production figures can be made atVerband der Pyrotechnischen Industrie
New biomaterial could replace plastic laminates, greatly reduce pollution
21.09.2017 | Penn State
Stopping problem ice -- by cracking it
21.09.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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