Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Protein-Based Coating Could Help Rehabilitate Long-Term Brain Function

TAU researchers develop bioactive coating to "camouflage" neutral electrodes
Brain-computer interfaces are at the cutting edge for treatment of neurological and psychological disorder, including Parkinson's, epilepsy, and depression. Among the most promising advance is deep brain stimulation (DBS) — a method in which a silicon chip implanted under the skin ejects high frequency currents that are transferred to the brain through implanted electrodes that transmit and receive the signals. These technologies require a seamless interaction between the brain and the hardware.

But there's a catch. Identified as foreign bodies by the immune system, the brain attacks the electrodes and forms a barrier to the brain tissue, making it impossible for the electrodes to communicate with brain activity. So while the initial implantation can diminish symptoms, after a few short years or even months, the efficacy of this therapy begins to wane.

Now Aryeh Taub of Tel Aviv University's School of Psychological Sciences, along with Prof. Matti Mintz, Roni Hogri and Ari Magal of TAU's School of Psychological Sciences and Prof. Yosi Shacham-Diamand of TAU's School of Electrical Engineering, has developed a bioactive coating which not only "camouflages" the electrodes in the brain tissue, but actively suppresses the brain's immune response. By using a protein called an "interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist" to coat the electrodes, the multi-disciplinary team of researchers has found a potential resolution to turn a method for short-term relief into a long-term solution. This development was reported in the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research.

Limiting the immune response

To overcome the creation of the barrier between the tissue and the electrode, the researchers sought to develop a method for placing the electrode in the brain tissue while hiding the electrode from the brain's immune defenses. Previous research groups have coated the electrodes with various proteins, says Taub, but the TAU team decided to take a different approach by using a protein that is active within the brain itself, thereby suppressing the immune reaction against the electrodes.

In the brain, the IL-1 receptor antagonist is crucial for maintaining physical stability by localizing brain damage, Taub explains. For example, if a person is hit on the head, this protein works to create scarring in specific areas instead of allowing global brain scarring. In other words, it stops the immune system from overreacting. The team's coating, the first to be developed from this particular protein, not only integrates the electrodes into the brain tissue, but allows them to contribute to normal brain functioning.

In pre-clinical studies with animal models, the researchers found that their coated electrodes perform better than both non-coated and "naïve protein"-coated electrodes that had previously been examined. Measuring the number of damaged cells at the site of implantation, researchers found no apparent difference between the site of electrode implantation and healthy brain tissue elsewhere, Taub says. In addition, evidence suggests that the coated electrodes will be able to function for long periods of time, providing a more stable and long-term treatment option.

Restoring brain function

Approximately 30,000 people worldwide are currently using deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neurological or psychological conditions. And DBS is only the beginning. Taub believes that, in the future, an interface with the ability to restore behavioral or motor function lost due to tissue damage is achievable — especially with the help of their new electrode coating.

"We duplicate the function of brain tissue onto a silicon chip and transfer it back to the brain," Taub says, explaining that the electrodes will pick up brain waves and transfer these directly to the chip. "The chip then does the computation that would have been done in the damaged tissue, and feeds the information back into the brain — prompting functions that would have otherwise gotten lost."

George Hunka | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht How nanoscience will improve our health and lives in the coming years
27.10.2016 | University of California - Los Angeles

nachricht 3-D-printed structures shrink when heated
26.10.2016 | Massachusetts Institute of Technology

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Etching Microstructures with Lasers

Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.

This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...

Im Focus: Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

How nanoscience will improve our health and lives in the coming years

27.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

OU-led team discovers rare, newborn tri-star system using ALMA

27.10.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

'Neighbor maps' reveal the genome's 3-D shape

27.10.2016 | Life Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>