Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

One Direction: Researchers Grow Nanocircuitry with Semiconducting Graphene Nanoribbons

16.10.2015

In a development that could revolutionize electronic ciruitry, a research team from the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory has confirmed a new way to control the growth paths of graphene nanoribbons on the surface of a germainum crystal.

Germanium is a semiconductor and this method provides a straightforward way to make semiconducting nanoscale circuits from graphene, a form of carbon only one atom thick.


Gusinger et. al

Researchers at Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials have confirmed the growth of self-directed graphene nanoribbons on the surface of the semiconducting material germanium by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

The method was discovered by UW scientists and confirmed in tests at Argonne.

“Some researchers have wanted to make transistors out of carbon nanotubes but the problem is that they grow in all sorts of directions,” said Brian Kiraly of Argonne. “The innovation here is that you can grow these along circuit paths that works for your tech.”

UW researchers used chemical vapor deposition to grow graphene nanoribbons on germanium crystals. This technique flows a mixture of methane, hydrogen and argon gases into a tube furnace. At high temperatures, methane decomposes into carbon atoms that settle onto the germanium's surface to form a uniform graphene sheet. By adjusting the chamber's settings, the UW team was able to exert very precise control over the material.

"What we've discovered is that when graphene grows on germanium, it naturally forms nanoribbons with these very smooth, armchair edges," said Michael Arnold, an associate professor of materials science and engineering at UW-Madison. "The widths can be very, very narrow and the lengths of the ribbons can be very long, so all the desirable features we want in graphene nanoribbons are happening automatically with this technique."

Graphene, a one-atom-thick, two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms, is known for moving electrons at lightning speed across its surface without interference. This high mobility makes the material an ideal candidate for faster, more energy-efficient electronics.

However, the semiconductor industry wants to make circuits start and stop electrons at will via band-gaps, as they do in computer chips. As a semimetal, graphene naturally has no band-gaps, making it a challenge for widespread industry adoption. Until now.

To confirm these findings, UW researchers went to Argonne staff scientists Brian Kiraly and Nathan Guisinger at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, a DOE Office of Science User Facility located at Argonne.

“We have some very unique capabilities here at the Center for Nanoscale Materials,” said Guisinger. “Not only are our facilities designed to work with all different sorts of materials from metals to oxides, we can also characterize, grow and synthesize materials."

Using scanning tunneling microscopy, a technique using electrons (instead of light or the eyes) to see the characteristics of a sample, researchers confirmed the presence of graphene nanoribbons growing on the germanium. Data gathered from the electron signatures allowed the researchers to create images of the material’s dimensions and orientation. In addition, they were able to determine its band structure and extent to which electrons scattered throughout the material.

“We’re looking at fundamental physical properties to verify that it is, in fact, graphene and it shows some characteristic electronic properties,” said Kiraly. “What’s even more interesting is that these nanoribbons can be made to grow in certain directions on one side of the germanium crystal, but not the other two sides.”

For use in electronic devices, the semiconductor industry is primarily interested in three faces of a germanium crystal. Depicting these faces in terms of coordinates (X,Y,Z), where single atoms connect to each other in a diamond-like grid structure, each face of a crystal (1,1,1) will have axes that differ from one (1,1,0) to the other (1,0,0).

Previous research shows that graphene sheets can grow on germanium crystal faces (1,1,1) and (1,1,0). However, this is the first time any study has recorded the growth of graphene nanoribbons on the (1,0,0) face.

As their investigations continue, researchers can now focus their efforts on exactly why self-directed graphene nanoribbons grow on the (1,0,0) face and determine if there is any unique interaction between the germanium and graphene that may play a role.

This research is detailed in the paper "Direct oriented growth of armchair graphene nanoribbons on germanium," published in Nature Communications. The method for this work was led by Michael Arnold’s Advanced Materials for Energy and Electronics Group at UW-Madison. Confirmation of findings was led by Nathan Guisinger and Brian Kiraly at the Center for Nanoscale Materials at Argonne National Laboratory. Additional co-authors include Robert M. Jacobberger, Matthieu Fortin-Deschenes, Pierre L. Levesque, Kyle M. McElhinny, Gerald J. Brady, Richard Rojas Delgado, Susmit Singha Roy, Andrew Mannix, Max G. Lagally, Paul G. Evans, Patrick Desjardins, Richard Martel and Mark C. Hersam.

This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council, the University of Wisconsin Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, the Department of Defense (DOD) Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the National Science Foundation’s Graduate Research Fellowships.

Argonne National Laboratory seeks solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nation's first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance America's scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne is managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.

DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit www.science.energy.gov

Contact Information
Justin Breaux
External Communications Specialist
jbreaux@anl.gov
Phone: 630-252-5823
Mobile: 312-342-9155

Justin Breaux | newswise
Further information:
http://www.anl.gov

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Plant inspiration could lead to flexible electronics
22.06.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht A rhodium-based catalyst for making organosilicon using less precious metal
22.06.2017 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

Im Focus: Optoelectronic Inline Measurement – Accurate to the Nanometer

Germany counts high-precision manufacturing processes among its advantages as a location. It’s not just the aerospace and automotive industries that require almost waste-free, high-precision manufacturing to provide an efficient way of testing the shape and orientation tolerances of products. Since current inline measurement technology not yet provides the required accuracy, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is collaborating with four renowned industry partners in the INSPIRE project to develop inline sensors with a new accuracy class. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the project is scheduled to run until the end of 2019.

New Manufacturing Technologies for New Products

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation

22.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Plant inspiration could lead to flexible electronics

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

A rhodium-based catalyst for making organosilicon using less precious metal

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>