Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New material could advance superconductivity

28.07.2016

Scientists have looked for different ways to force hydrogen into a metallic state for decades. A metallic state of hydrogen is a holy grail for materials science because it could be used for superconductors, materials that have no resistance to the flow of electrons, which increases electricity transfer efficiency many times over. For the first time researchers, led by Carnegie's Viktor Struzhkin, have experimentally produced a new class of materials blending hydrogen with sodium that could alter the superconductivity landscape and could be used for hydrogen-fuel cell storage. The research is published in Nature Communications.

It had been predicted that certain hydrogen-rich compounds consisting of multiple atoms of hydrogen with so-called alkali metals like lithium, potassium or sodium, could provide a new chemical means to alter the compound's electronic structure. This, in turn, may lead the way to metallic high-temperature superconductors.


At center, in green, is the new three-atom hydrogen 'chain.' It is surrounded by several 'normal' two-atom molecules of hydrogen, also in green. The new chain configuration appears in the new material NaH7, which was produced under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The new material could change the superconductivity landscape and be useful for hydrogen storage in hydrogen fuel cells.

Image courtesy Duck Young Kim

"The challenge is temperature," explained Struzhkin. "The only superconductors that have been produced can only exist at impractically cold temperatures. In recent years, there have been predictions of compounds with several atoms of hydrogen coupled with alkali metals that could exist at more practical temperatures. They are theorized to have unique properties useful to superconductivity."

Now, the predictions have been confirmed. The Struzhkin team included Carnegie researchers Duck Young Kim, Elissaios Stavrou, Takaki Muramatsu, Ho-Kwang Mao, and Alexander Goncharov, with researchers from other institutions.*

The team used theory to guide their experiments and measured the samples using both a method that reveals the atomic structure (X-ray diffraction) and a method that identifies molecules by characteristics such as their minute vibrations and rotations (Raman spectroscopy). Theoretically, the sodium/hydrogen material would be stable under pressure, have metallic characteristics and unique structures, and show superconducting properties.

The team conducted high-pressure/high-temperature experiments. Matter under these extreme conditions can morph into new structures with new properties. They squeezed lithium and sodium samples in a diamond anvil cell to enormous pressures while heating the samples using a laser. At pressures between 300,000 and 400,000 atmospheres (30-40 gigapascals, or GPa) and temperatures of about 3100°F (2000 kelvin), they observed, for the first time, structures of "polyhydrides," sodium with 3 hydrogen atoms (NaH3) and NaH7--sodium with seven atoms of hydrogen--in very unusual configurations. Three negative charged hydrogen atoms in the NaH7 material lined up and looked like one-dimensional hydrogen chains, which is a new phase that is very different from pure hydrogen.

"This configuration was originally predicted to exist in 1972, more than 40 years ago," remarked Duck Young Kim. "It turns out that our experiments are in complete agreement with the theory, which predicted the existence of NaH3. The bonus is that we also observed the compound with seven hydrogen atoms."

Struzhkin reflected, "Further work needs to be done to see if materials in this class can be produced at lower temperatures and pressures. But this new class of matter opens up a whole new world of possibilities."

###

Caption: At center, in green, is the new three-atom hydrogen "chain." It is surrounded by several "normal" two-atom molecules of hydrogen, also in green. The new chain configuration appears in the new material NaH7, which was produced under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The new material could change the superconductivity landscape and be useful for hydrogen storage in hydrogen fuel cells. Image courtesy Duck Young Kim

*Other researcher include Chris Pickard with the University College, London; Richard Needs of the Cavendish Laboratory in the UK; and Vitali Prakapenda of the University of Chicago. This work was supported by the DOE/BES; the Energy Frontier Research in Extreme Environments Center (EFree); the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) of the UK; DARPA; and NSFC.

The Carnegie Institution for Science is a private, nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., with six research departments throughout the U.S. Since its founding in 1902, the Carnegie Institution has been a pioneering force in basic scientific research. Carnegie scientists are leaders in plant biology, developmental biology, astronomy, materials science, global ecology, and Earth and planetary science.

Viktor Struzhkin | EurekAlert!

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests
15.12.2017 | Georgia Institute of Technology

nachricht Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells
11.12.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>