Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Learning from Origami to Design New Materials

11.08.2014

UMass Amherst scientists use paper-folding ideas to create reprogrammable materials

A challenge increasingly important to physicists and materials scientists in recent years has been how to design controllable new materials that exhibit desired physical properties rather than relying on those properties to emerge naturally, says University of Massachusetts Amherst physicist Christian Santangelo.


Jesse Silverberg, Cornell University

Physicists and materials scientists are using origami-based folding methods, or tessellation, for “tuning” the fundamental physical properties of thin sheets, which could help develop molecular-scale machines that snap into place and perform mechanical tasks.

Now he and physicist Arthur Evans and polymer scientist Ryan Hayward at UMass Amherst, with others at Cornell and Western New England University, are using origami-based folding methods for “tuning” the fundamental physical properties of any type of thin sheet, which may eventually lead to development of molecular-scale machines that could snap into place and perform mechanical tasks. Results are reported today in an early online edition of Science.

At a physics meeting a couple of years ago, Santangelo mentioned the unusual properties of a special type of origami fold called Miura-ori to fellow physicist Jesse Silverberg of Cornell, a long-time origami enthusiast. Miura-ori, named after the astrophysicist who invented the technique, is a series of folded parallelograms that change the stiffness of a sheet of paper based only on the crease pattern.

Also known as tessellation, this special folding, which occurs naturally in some leaves and tissues, arranges a flat surface using a repeated pattern of alternating mountain-and-valley zigzag folds. Objects folded this way contract when squeezed, a bit like an accordion, so they can be packed into a very small shape but unfolded with little effort from the corners. This technique has been used in space to launch satellites with solar arrays that can be unfolded using only a few small motors at the edges.

Santangelo explains, “As you compress most materials along one axis, they expand in other directions. In other words, squeezing a hunk of material causes it to leak out the sides. A rare class of materials, however, does the opposite. If you compress them along one direction, they collapse uniformly in all directions. Miura-ori shows us how to use this property to make new devices. Exotic materials can be formed from traditional materials simply by altering microscopic structure.”

Santangelo, with Silverberg and Itai Cohen at Cornell and Tom Hull at Western New England, describe in their new paper how to alter patterns and introduce defects to tune a thin sheet’s stiffness and create a material in which physical properties can be programmed and reprogrammed.

Silverberg says, “The work brings together origami, metamaterials, programmable matter crystallography and more. It’s totally bizarre and unique to have so many of these ideas intersecting at the same time.”

Santangelo says active materials can change their shape, size, and/or physical properties with changes in temperature, pressure, electro-magnetic fields, or other aspects of their environment. With such materials, researchers may be able to create entire structures and systems out of single pieces that are flexible, elastic and resilient.

Santangelo adds, “In particular, this gives us the ability to make a reprogrammable material. By toggling elements of the origami structure between two stable states, we can make the structure stiffer, selectively weaken certain parts, and so on. And we can do it reversibly. Given origami’s scale-free geometric character, this framework for metamaterial design can be directly transferred to milli-, micro- and nanometer size systems.”

He adds that metamaterials are rapidly emerging at the frontier of scientific and technological innovation due to their exotic and tunable material properties, which arise from arrangements of smaller units within the bulk system to generate exotic, non-natural properties on larger scales. Miura-ori can be considered a mechanical metamaterial because its stiffness can be controlled by the specific fold angles of the parallelograms, Silverberg explains.

The physicists point out that it is rare to find metamaterials that can be reconfigured beyond their original design, but origami-inspired mechanical metamaterials offer enhanced flexibility because their properties are linked to alterable folding pattern. So-called “pop-through defects” made by changing crease directions, can be introduced to change a sheet’s stiffness, so multiple stable configurations can come from a single structure yielding programmable metamaterials.

Using numerical simulations, Evans and Santangelo calculated the effect that a pop-through defect has on Miura-ori. They showed that it instantly makes the entire sheet stiffer, and the effect is additive. The Cornell group will present this research at the Sixth International Meeting on Origami in Science, Mathematics and Education on Aug. 10-13 in Tokyo.

Chris Santangelo | newswise
Further information:
http://www.umass.edu

Further reports about: Design Origami exotic materials metamaterials stiffness structure

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht New method developed for timely detection of impending material failure
28.08.2015 | Universität Siegen

nachricht Soaking up carbon dioxide and turning it into valuable products
28.08.2015 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: OU astrophysicist and collaborators find supermassive black holes in quasar nearest Earth

A University of Oklahoma astrophysicist and his Chinese collaborator have found two supermassive black holes in Markarian 231, the nearest quasar to Earth, using observations from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

The discovery of two supermassive black holes--one larger one and a second, smaller one--are evidence of a binary black hole and suggests that supermassive...

Im Focus: What would a tsunami in the Mediterranean look like?

A team of European researchers have developed a model to simulate the impact of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and applied it to the Eastern Mediterranean. The results show how tsunami waves could hit and inundate coastal areas in southern Italy and Greece. The study is published today (27 August) in Ocean Science, an open access journal of the European Geosciences Union (EGU).

Though not as frequent as in the Pacific and Indian oceans, tsunamis also occur in the Mediterranean, mainly due to earthquakes generated when the African...

Im Focus: Self-healing landscape: landslides after earthquake

In mountainous regions earthquakes often cause strong landslides, which can be exacerbated by heavy rain. However, after an initial increase, the frequency of these mass wasting events, often enormous and dangerous, declines, in fact independently of meteorological events and aftershocks.

These new findings are presented by a German-Franco-Japanese team of geoscientists in the current issue of the journal Geology, under the lead of the GFZ...

Im Focus: FIC Proteins Send Bacteria Into Hibernation

Bacteria do not cease to amaze us with their survival strategies. A research team from the University of Basel's Biozentrum has now discovered how bacteria enter a sleep mode using a so-called FIC toxin. In the current issue of “Cell Reports”, the scientists describe the mechanism of action and also explain why their discovery provides new insights into the evolution of pathogens.

For many poisons there are antidotes which neutralize their toxic effect. Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria work in a similar manner: As long as a cell...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer IPA develops prototype of intelligent care cart

It comes when called, bringing care utensils with it and recording how they are used: Fraunhofer IPA is developing an intelligent care cart that provides care staff with physical and informational support in their day-to-day work. The scientists at Fraunhofer IPA have now completed a first prototype. In doing so, they are continuing in their efforts to improve working conditions in the care sector and are developing solutions designed to address the challenges of demographic change.

Technical assistance systems can improve the difficult working conditions in residential nursing homes and hospitals by helping the staff in their work and...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Networking conference in Heidelberg for outstanding mathematicians and computer scientists

20.08.2015 | Event News

Scientists meet in Münster for the world’s largest Chitin und Chitosan Conference

20.08.2015 | Event News

Large agribusiness management strategies

19.08.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Interstellar seeds could create oases of life

28.08.2015 | Physics and Astronomy

An ounce of prevention: Research advances on 'scourge' of transplant wards

28.08.2015 | Health and Medicine

Fish Oil-Diet Benefits May be Mediated by Gut Microbes

28.08.2015 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>