Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Large scale production of Edge-Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelets (EFGnPs)

13.02.2013
Researchers from the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), South Korea have pioneered a simple, but efficient and eco-friendly way to produce Edge-selectively functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (EFGnPs) by dry ball milling graphite in the presence of various gases.
The electrocatalytic activity of heteroatom-doped carbon-based nanomaterials has become a growing interest in the past few years due to their potential applications for fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

Several approaches currently exist for the doping of heteroatoms into graphitic structure, but these suffer from high manufacturing costs and technical difficulties.
Researchers at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) have come up with a simple, but efficient and eco-friendly alternative which sees the production of edge-selectively functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (EFGnPs) via a dry ball milling graphite in the presence of various gases. The dry ball mill is effectively a type of grinder, traditionally use to grind ores, chemicals and other raw materials into fine powder. It can also be used on a atomic level, as is the case when producing EFGnPs.

Due to the versatility of mechanochemical reactions driven by ball milling, various functional groups could be introduced to the broken edges of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) in the presence of appropriate chemical vapors, liquids, or solids in the ball-mill crusher.

The mechanism of edge-selective functionalization in the ball-milling process involves the reaction between reactive carbon species generated by a mechanochemical cleavage of graphitic C-C bonds and gases in a sealed ball-mill crusher. The dormant active carbon species, which remain unreactive in the crusher, could be terminated by subsequent exposure to air moisture. As a result, some oxygenated groups, such as hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxylic acid (-COOH), can be introduced at the broken edges of the preformed EFGnPs with minimal basal plane distortion.

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to demonstrate the mechanochemical cracking of a large grain sized piece of graphite into a small grain size of EFGnPs. Due to the reaction between the newly formed active carbon species at the broken edges of the GnPs and corresponding gases, the ball milling and subsequent workup procedures were found to increase the weight of all the resultant EFGnPs with respect to the graphite starting material. These results indicated that the mechanochemical functionalization of graphite was efficient. The resultant EFGnPs are active enough for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells, and hence they will make expensive platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts to take a back seat.

Jong-Beom Baek, professor and director of the Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy/Low-Dimensional Carbon Materials Center at UNIST commented:

“We have developed a simple, but versatile ball-milling process to efficiently exfoliate the pristine graphite directly into EFGnPs. Various microscopic and spectroscopic measurements were performed to confirm the reaction mechanisms for the edge functionalization of graphite by ball milling in the presence of corresponding gases and their superior slectrocatalytic activities of the ORR,” said Prof. Baek.

This research was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (Minister Lee Ju-Ho) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (President Seung Jong Lee) and published in Journal of the American Chemical Society (Title: Large-scale production of edge-selectively functionalized graphene nanoplatelets via ball-milling and their use as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction).

REFERENCE:

In-Yup Jeon, Hyun-Jung Choi, Sun-Min Jung, Jeong-Min Seo, Min-Jung Kim, Liming Dai, and Jong-Beom Baek 2013. Large-scale production of edge-selectively functionalized graphene nanoplatelets via ball-milling and their use as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction" Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(4): 1386–1393 (direct link below)

Journal information
Journal of American Chemical Society
Funding information
the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (Minister Lee Ju-Ho) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (President Seung Jong Lee)

Eunhee Song | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.unist.ac.kr
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Mat4Rail: EU Research Project on the Railway of the Future
23.02.2018 | Universität Bremen

nachricht Atomic structure of ultrasound material not what anyone expected
21.02.2018 | North Carolina State University

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Attoseconds break into atomic interior

A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.

In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...

Im Focus: Good vibrations feel the force

A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.

By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...

Im Focus: Developing reliable quantum computers

International research team makes important step on the path to solving certification problems

Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Basque researchers turn light upside down

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Finnish research group discovers a new immune system regulator

23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Attoseconds break into atomic interior

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>