Warmed beyond those frigid conditions, the materials cross a critical temperature threshold and the superconductivity breaks down. But high-temperature superconductors (HTS)—warmer, but still subzero—may have untapped potential because their underlying mechanism remains a mystery.
Unlocking that unknown HTS source and engineering new superconductor configurations could drive that critical temperature high enough to revolutionize energy technology.
Now, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have discovered an unexpected and anomalous pattern in the behavior of one high-performing class of HTS materials. In the new frontier of interface physics, two non-conducting materials can be layered to produce HTS behavior, with tantalizing and mystifying results. Testing a sample set of unprecedented size—more than 800 distinct, custom-made materials—the researchers found that the critical temperature for superconductivity remained constant across a wide range of atomic compositions.
“Theory predicted that the critical temperature in these interface samples would depend strongly on the electron content, but we saw no such dependence,” said Brookhaven physicist Ivan Bozovic, lead investigator on the new study published online August 4, 2013, in the journal Nature Materials. “We are exploring uncharted territory with unprecedented precision.”
Scientists can tweak the average number of electrons present in HTS films—called the doping level or carrier density—to optimize performance and explore the poorly understood phenomenon. The lanthanum, strontium, copper, and oxygen (LSCO) films used in this study change based on that doping level, transforming into under-doped insulator, a well doped superconductor, or an over-doped and non-superconducting metal. Much HTS research is dedicated to exploring the “just right” regime in the middle, but the ends of the spectrum hold considerable potential.
“Years ago, we discovered something truly remarkable at the interface between an LSCO insulator and an over-doped metal,” Bozovic said. “An unpredicted superconductivity emerged with a significantly enhanced critical temperature of more than 50 Kelvin.”
That temperature may be frosty (-370 degrees Fahrenheit), but the interface threshold is downright balmy compared to traditional superconductors and even 25 percent warmer than single-phase LSCO materials. Faced with this promising puzzle, the Brookhaven Lab team set out to test the many possible atomic configurations of LSCO interface superconductors.
To map the relatively simple phase diagram of water—its journey from solid ice to gaseous vapor—the temperature must be incrementally increased. Leaping up by 10 degrees, for example, would leave considerable gaps and reveal very little about the exact phase transitions or how to harness them.
“To pinpoint the parameters of interface HTS, which is characterized by quantum phase transitions rather than thermal, we tuned the carrier density,” Bozovic said. “So unlike the simple application of heat, we had to alter the atomic composition of our samples.”
Without confirmed theories on interface superconductivity to guide design, each electron configuration must be synthesized and directly tested. And to make matters even more challenging, the Brookhaven collaboration needed hundreds of these precisely tailored LSCO samples.
“When studying complex materials, one needs robust statistics to identify trends—finding what is ubiquitous or intrinsic and filtering out the random and irrelevant,” Bozovic said. “So we fabricated more than 800 samples, each one almost atomically perfect, with subtle changes in the doping level.”
To accomplish this feat, the scientists used a custom-designed atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy system (ALL-MBE) at Brookhaven Lab. The MBE group, which Bozovic leads, grew the thin LSCO films inside strictly controlled vacuum chambers. They then lithographically patterned the films—a bit like micrometer-scale printing—into an array of distinct pixels, each with a slightly different chemical composition. The researchers then measured the flow of current against the related doping levels in each pixel to chart the rise and fall of HTS.
“Our technique accelerated the sample testing process by 30 times or more,” Bozovic said. “More importantly, we could vary the doping level in steps one hundred times smaller than in standard methods.”
To the surprise of the Brookhaven scientists, the critical temperature for interface superconductivity in each of the 800 samples stayed constant at about 40 Kelvin. The doping level, even at the optimum levels predicted by theoretical models, did not appear to shift the electro-chemical potential of the HTS materials.
“The results pose a new challenge to HTS theories,” Bozovic said. “This study exemplifies the rich puzzle of interface physics and the other new discoveries that can be made through advanced experimentation.”
Additional collaborators on the research include Jie Wu, Oshiri Pelleg, Anthony Bollinger, Yujie Sun, all of Brookhaven Lab, Mihajlo Vanevic and Zoran Radovic of University of Belgrade, Serbia, and Gregory Boebinger of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.
The research was funded by the DOE’s Office of Science, the Serbian Ministry of Science and Education, and the National Science Foundation.
DOE's Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit http://science.energy.gov.
One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE's Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by the Research Foundation for the State University of New York on behalf of Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
Justin Eure | Newswise
Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite
20.04.2018 | University of Connecticut
Diamond-like carbon is formed differently to what was believed -- machine learning enables development of new model
19.04.2018 | Aalto University
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.
Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...
In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a “sore spot” is the protein complex...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
20.04.2018 | Interdisciplinary Research
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy