Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

From metal to insulator and back again

23.04.2015

New work from Carnegie's Russell Hemley and Ivan Naumov hones in on the physics underlying the recently discovered fact that some metals stop being metallic under pressure. Their work is published in Physical Review Letters.

Metals are compounds that are capable of conducting the flow of electrons that make up an electric current. Other materials, called insulators, are not capable of conducting an electric current. At low temperatures, all materials can be classified as either insulators or metals.


This is a view of the localized electrons in the unusual insulating state of Li under pressure, courtesy of Russell Hemley and Ivan Naumov.

Credit: Russell Hemley and Ivan Naumov

Insulators can be pushed across the divide from insulator to metal by tuning their surrounding conditions, particularly by placing them under pressure. It was long believed that once such a material was converted into a metal under pressure, it would stay that way forever as the pressure was increased. This idea goes back to the birth of quantum mechanics in the early decades of the last century.

But it was recently discovered that certain groups of metals become insulating under pressure-a remarkable finding that was not previously thought possible.

For example, lithium goes from being a metallic conductor to a somewhat resistant semiconductor under around 790,000 times normal atmospheric pressure (80 gigapascals) and then becomes fully metallic again under around 1.2 million times normal atmospheric pressure (120 gigapascals). Sodium enters an insulating state at pressures of around 1.8 million times normal atmospheric pressure (180 gigapascals). Calcium and nickel are predicted to have similar insulating states before reverting to being metallic.

Hemley and Naumov wanted to determine the unifying physics framework underlying these unexpected metal-to-insulator-to-metal transitions.

"The principles we developed will allow for predictions of when metals will become insulators under pressure, as well as the reverse, the when-insulators-can-become-metals transition," Naumov said.

The onsets of these transitions can be determined by the positions of electrons within the basic structure of the material. Insulators typically become metallic by a reduction in the spacing between atoms in the material. Hemley and Naumov demonstrated that for a metal to become an insulator, these reduced-spacing overlaps must be organized in a specific kind of asymmetry that was not previously recognized. Under these conditions, electrons localize between the atoms and do not freely flow as they do in the metallic form.

"This is yet another example of how extreme pressure is an important tool for advancing our understanding principles of the nature of materials at a fundamental level. The work will have implications for the search for new energy materials." Hemley said.

###

This work was supported by EFree, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the DOE Office of Science Basic Energy Sciences. The infrastructure and facilities are supported by NNSA and CDAC.

The Carnegie Institution for Science is a private, nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., with six research departments throughout the U.S. Since its founding in 1902, the Carnegie Institution has been a pioneering force in basic scientific research. Carnegie scientists are leaders in plant biology, developmental biology, astronomy, materials science, global ecology, and Earth and planetary science.

Media Contact

Russell Hemley
rhemley@carnegiescience.edu
202-478-8951

 @carnegiescience

http://www.ciw.edu 

Russell Hemley | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Scientists create innovative new 'green' concrete using graphene
24.04.2018 | University of Exeter

nachricht Neutrons provide insights into increased performance for hybrid perovskite solar cells
24.04.2018 | DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.

Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Complete skin regeneration system of fish unraveled

24.04.2018 | Life Sciences

Scientists create innovative new 'green' concrete using graphene

24.04.2018 | Materials Sciences

BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

24.04.2018 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>