Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have arrived at how what is known as time-reversal symmetry can break in one class of superconducting material. The results have been published in the highly ranked Nature Physics journal, which also put the Chalmers researchers' study on the cover.
"Symmetries are an important aspect when describing nature", says Mikael Fogelström, who is a professor of theoretical physics at Chalmers University of Technology.
A route to a time-reversal symmetry-broken state for d-wave superconductors is shown to occur via the formation of a necklace of fractional vortices around the perimeter of the material, where neighboring vortices have opposite current circulation. This vortex pattern is a result of a spectral rearrangement of current-carrying states near the edges.
Credit: Mikael Håkansson
"A ball is round and looks the same regardless of how we rotate it; thus, it has rotational symmetry. In the same way, most materials have symmetries that describe what the materials look like and what their properties are. If one or more symmetries breaks, this signals a phase transition to a new state. When a material becomes magnetic, a more abstract symmetry, what is known as time-reversal symmetry, is broken".
Superconducting materials conduct electric current without loss of energy. In 1986, researchers discovered that a family of perovskite materials - that have two-dimensional copper-oxide planes - becomes superconductive at relatively high temperatures. It could also thereafter be fairly quickly ascertained by experiments that the superconducting phase also broke the crystal symmetry, and that the material was unusual in this respect.
Theoreticians pondered whether the materials could also break time-reversal symmetry and produce spontaneous magnetisation. Experiments, primarily related to electron transport, showed that this was the case, while another category of experiments aimed at directly measuring the spontaneous magnetisation demonstrated no effect.
"Our work has arrived at a new mechanism for breaking time-reversal symmetry in high-temperature superconductors" says Tomas Löfwander, who is one of the researchers behind the new results. "We maintain that this has probably already been observed and that the two sets of experiments do not contradict one another."
The Chalmers researchers' discovery is based on a software package that researcher Mikael Håkansson developed while completing his licentiate thesis at the Division of Applied Quantum Physics at MC2, in order to produce a theoretical model of small mesoscopic superconducting grains. The software package utilises massive parallelisation of the numeric work, which can then be processed in graphics processing units, or GPUs.
"The time required to perform the fairly demanding computations was significantly reduced, and we were able to focus more on the physics and simulate more realistic systems", explains Mikael Håkansson. "At the same time, I developed a tool to process and visualise the large amounts of data that the software produced. The cover of the September issue of Nature Physics shows how the electron state is distributed in energy along a surface of a high-temperature superconductor when it has broken the time-reversal symmetry."
The computational tool has allowed the Chalmers researchers to investigate cases where the ring of a superconducting crystal affects the force of the superconducting phase. A periodic pattern of vortices spontaneously forms in the shape of a necklace along the surface as soon as the temperature is lower than a limit temperature. These vortices in turn cause a spontaneous magnetic flux that alternates direction on a length scale of a few dozen nanometers.
"We believe that new results with what are known as nanosquids, which are magnetometers with extremely good resolution, will be able to give immediate experimental verification of our results," says Mikael Fogelström.
Read the article "Spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry in high-temperature superconductors" in Nature Physics: http://dx.
Johanna Wilde | EurekAlert!
The stacked colour sensor
16.11.2017 | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt
Counterfeits and product piracy can be prevented by security features, such as printed 3-D microstructures
16.11.2017 | Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine
17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses