Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A Nanosized Hydrogen Generator

22.09.2014

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have created a small scale “hydrogen generator” that uses light and a two-dimensional graphene platform to boost production of the hard-to-make element.

The research also unveiled a previously unknown property of graphene. The two-dimensional chain of carbon atoms not only gives and receives electrons, but can also transfer them into another substance.


John Lambert

Hydrogen Generator. Argonne researchers produce trace amounts of hydrogen with visible light by merging light-collecting proteins from a single-celled organism with a graphene platform. Both graphene and protein absorb the light and re-direct electrons towards the titanium dioxide. Electrons interact with protons at the site of the platinum nanoparticles to produce hydrogen.

Hydrogen is virtually everywhere on the planet, but the element is typically bonded with other elements and must be separated from oxygen in H2O to produce free hydrogen. The commercial separation process uses natural gas to react with superheated steam to strip away hydrogen atoms producing hydrogen fuel, but also carbon dioxide —a greenhouse gas byproduct which escapes into the atmosphere.

Argonne’s early-stage generator, composed of many tiny assemblies, is proof that hydrogen can be produced without burning fossil fuels. The scale is small, a little smaller than the diameter of spider silk. Scaling this research up in the future may mean that you could replace the gas in your cars and generators with hydrogen—a greener option, because burning hydrogen fuel emits only water vapor.

“Many researchers are looking to inorganic materials for new sources of energy,” said Elena Rozhkova, chemist at Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials, a DOE Office of Science (Office of Basic Energy Sciences) User Facility. “Our goal is to learn from the natural world and use its materials as building blocks for innovation.”

For Rozhkova, this particular building block is inspired by the function of an ancient protein known to turn light into energy. Researchers have long known that some single-celled organisms use a protein called bacteriorhodopsin (bR) to absorb sunlight and pump protons through a membrane, creating a form of chemical energy. They also know that water can be split into oxygen and hydrogen by combining these proteins with titanium dioxide and platinum and then exposing them to ultraviolet light.

There is just one downside: titanium dioxide only reacts in the presence of ultraviolet light, which makes up a mere four percent of the total solar spectrum. If the researchers wanted to power their generators with sunlight, they’d need to improve on that.

In order to produce greater amounts of hydrogen using visible light, the researchers looked for a new material. The new material would need enough surface area to move electrons across quickly and evenly and boost the overall electron transfer efficiency. The researchers also needed a platform on which biological components, like bR, could survive and connect with the titanium dioxide catalyst: in short, a material like graphene.

Graphene is a super strong, super light, near totally transparent sheet of carbon atoms and one of the best conductors of electricity ever discovered. Graphene owes its amazing properties to being two-dimensional.

“Graphene not only has all these amazing properties, but it is also ultra-thin and biologically inert,” said Rozhkova. “Its very presence allowed the other components to self-assemble around it, which totally changes how the electrons move throughout our system.”

Rozhkova’s mini-hydrogen generator works like this: both the bR protein and the graphene platform absorb visible light. Electrons from this reaction are transmitted to the titanium dioxide on which these two materials are anchored, making the titanium dioxide sensitive to visible light.

Simultaneously, light from the green end of the solar spectrum triggers the bR protein to begin pumping protons along its membrane. These protons make their way to the platinum nanoparticles which sit on top of the titanium dioxide. Hydrogen is produced by the interaction of the protons and electrons as they converge on the platinum.

Examinations using a technique called Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and time-resolved spectroscopy at the Center for Nanoscale Materials verified the movements of the electrons within the system, while electrochemical studies confirmed the protons were transferred. Tests also revealed a new quirk of graphene behavior.

“The majority of the research out there states that graphene principally conducts and accepts electrons,” said Argonne postdoctoral researcher Peng Wang. “Our exploration using EPR allowed us to prove, experimentally, that graphene also injects electrons into other materials.”

Rozhkova’s hydrogen generator proves that nanotechnology, merged with biology, can create new sources of clean energy. Her team’s discovery may provide future consumers a biologically-inspired alternative to gasoline.

“These are the types of discoveries we can make at Argonne,” said Rozhkova. “Working in the basic energy sciences, we were able to demonstrate an energy-rich biologically-inspired alternative to gas.”

This research, “Photoinduced Electron Transfer pathways in Hydrogen-Evolving Reduced Graphene Oxide-Boosted Hybrid Nano-Bio Catalyst,” appeared in the July 7 issue of ACS Nano. The research was performed at the Center for Nanoscale Materials and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

# # #

Argonne National Laboratory seeks solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nation's first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance America's scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne is managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.

DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

Justin H. S. Breaux | newswise

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Decoding cement's shape promises greener concrete
08.12.2016 | Rice University

nachricht Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D
08.12.2016 | DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Closing the carbon loop

08.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Applicability of dynamic facilitation theory to binary hard disk systems

08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D

08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>