Cooking stoves with chimneys can lower exposure to indoor wood smoke and reduce the rate of severe pneumonia by 30 percent in children less than 18 months of age, according to a new air pollution study funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), part of the National Institutes of Health.
The study in the Nov. 10 issue of The Lancet showed that rates of severe childhood pneumonia were significantly reduced in households provided with a wood stove connected to a chimney, compared with homes where open, indoor wood cooking fires were used. The lead researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, report that carbon monoxide exposure levels were reduced 50 percent on average in the homes equipped with chimneys.
Though childhood deaths from pneumonia are relatively uncommon in the United States, it kills more children worldwide than any other disease, and open fires used for heating and cooking are thought to be a major cause. Pneumonia kills almost 1.6 million children each year.
"Exposure to smoke from cooking stoves is a major global public health problem that affects nearly half of the world's population and contributes to approximately 2 million deaths per year," said Linda Birnbaum, Ph.D., director of NIEHS and the National Toxicology Program. "This is one of the first studies that shows how an intervention can reduce indoor air pollution from wood smoke, so people can live healthier lives." Birnbaum noted that the paper's release also coincides with World Pneumonia Day on Nov. 12, which is geared toward raising awareness of the effects of pneumonia globally.
The NIH Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) trial included a total of 534 households in rural Guatemala with a pregnant woman or young infant. The study participants were randomly assigned to receive a locally developed cookstove with a chimney or to continue cooking using traditional open wood fires. In all, 265 children were from the chimney-stove homes and 253 children were in the control homes. Trained field workers visited the homes every week for two years to record the children's health status. Sick children with cough and fast breathing were referred to physicians.
Although the study did not significantly reduce the total number of diagnosed childhood pneumonia cases, the reduction in severe pneumonia would likely result in reduced childhood mortality, according to the researchers.
"We found as large a benefit for severe pneumonia as more well-known public health interventions, such as vaccinations and nutrition supplements," said Kirk Smith, Ph.D., lead researcher for the study and a professor of global environmental health at the University of California, Berkeley. "Future investments into viable, large-scale stove and fuel interventions to reduce child exposure to household air pollution are certainly worth making."
NIEHS supports research to understand the effects of the environment on human health and is part of NIH. For more information on environmental health topics, visit www.niehs.nih.gov. Subscribe to one or more of the NIEHS news lists (www.niehs.nih.gov/news/releases/newslist/index.cfm) to stay current on NIEHS news, press releases, grant opportunities, training, events, and publications.
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov
Ed Kang | EurekAlert!
Rutgers-led innovation could spur faster, cheaper, nano-based manufacturing
14.02.2018 | Rutgers University
New study from the University of Halle: How climate change alters plant growth
12.01.2018 | Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.
In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...
Animal photoreceptors capture light with photopigments. Researchers from the University of Göttingen have now discovered that these photopigments fulfill an...
On 15 March, the AWI research aeroplane Polar 5 will depart for Greenland. Concentrating on the furthest northeast region of the island, an international team...
The world’s second-largest ice shelf was the destination for a Polarstern expedition that ended in Punta Arenas, Chile on 14th March 2018. Oceanographers from...
At the 2018 ILA Berlin Air Show from April 25–29, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is showcasing extreme high-speed Laser Material Deposition (EHLA): A video documents how for metal components that are highly loaded, EHLA has already proved itself as an alternative to hard chrome plating, which is now allowed only under special conditions.
When the EU restricted the use of hexavalent chromium compounds to special applications requiring authorization, the move prompted a rethink in the surface...
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
13.03.2018 | Event News
20.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
20.03.2018 | Life Sciences
20.03.2018 | Life Sciences