Every year, an estimated four million children worldwide die within the first month of their lives. Less than a quarter of the sixty-eight countries targeted by the Millennium Development Goal 4 (reduction of mortality rate in children less than five years old by two-thirds by 2015) are on track to achieve that goal.
The groups were facilitated by women recruited in the local area, non-healthcare professionals who tended to be married, with some schooling, and a respected member of the community. The number of women taking part of in the groups increased from one in six women (17%) of childbearing age in the first year to over a half (55%) in the third year.
The women worked through a 'community action cycle' involving four stages: identifying the problems associated with pregnancy, childbirth and care of newborns; developing strategies to tackle these problems, such as improving hygiene, raising emergency funds and producing their own birthing kits; working with local community leaders, teachers, politicians and others to implement these strategies, and; evaluating their success."It was crucial that the women were allowed to think thought through the issues and implement their own strategies to tackle them, rather than us telling them what to do," says .. Dr Nirmala Nair of Ekjut. "We believe that a trained facilitator who supports informed peer learning is more effective for lasting behaviour change than a traditional instructor/learner approach."
"What we were seeing was a change in behaviour towards better hygiene practices and improved care for newborns," explains Professor Costello. "There was a move away from harmful practices such as giving birth in unclean environments and delaying breastfeeding. We saw significant improvements in areas such as basic hygiene by birth attendants, clean cord care and women responding earlier to care needs."
The researchers believe that improved social capital – the access the group gave women to a wider support network of peers – was potentially the most valuable aspect of the groups and would have contributed towards the improved childbirth and childcare practices and the reduction in maternal depression. It may also explain why such groups have had much greater success than direct – even one-to-one – interventions with healthcare workers.
"Many of the women in these groups would have been relatively young, living in arranged marriages with only their mother-in-law or a very limited network of friends for support," explains Dr Audrey Prost from UCL. "The groups empower the women to take preventive measures and to deal with problems more effectively when they arise. If you've been to a group and a problem arises, you've got a ready-made network that you can go to for help and support."
The researchers estimate that the additional cost on introducing support to these groups per newborn life saved was around US$910. However, this raises questions over who would pay for supporting these groups: federal or state government, non-governmental organisations, or a combination of the two.
The Lancet today also publishes a second study carried out by Professor Costello and colleagues using the same approach – women's groups – in Bangladesh. The study failed to reproduce the benefits of the India trial. However, in this case, the researchers believe that there were a number of issues which may have affected the outcome, including a failure to achieve the same coverage of women's groups and recruitment of pregnant women as the India trial.
Craig Brierley | EurekAlert!
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