Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Women's support groups make dramatic improvements on neonatal survival rates

08.03.2010
Women's community groups have had a dramatic effect on reducing neonatal mortality rates in some of the poorest areas on India, according to a study published today in the journal the Lancet. The groups provide a cost-effective intervention with added benefits such as reducing significantly maternal depression and improving decision-making amongst the women.

Every year, an estimated four million children worldwide die within the first month of their lives. Less than a quarter of the sixty-eight countries targeted by the Millennium Development Goal 4 (reduction of mortality rate in children less than five years old by two-thirds by 2015) are on track to achieve that goal.

A previous study conducted in Nepal and published by the Lancet in 2004 suggested that participatory women's groups could achieve a significant impact on neonatal health in poorer countries, far more than one-to-one contact with a health worker. To see if these findings could be applied in other countries, the researchers repeated the exercise in Jharkhand and Orissa, two of the poorest states in eastern India. Neonatal mortality rates in the two regions are 49 and 45 per 1000 live births respectively, disproportionately higher than India's national estimates of 39 per 1000. By comparison, in the UK the figures are 4 per 1000.

Between 2005 and 2008, a team of researchers led by Professor Anthony Costello from the Institute of Child Health, UCL (University College London), and Dr Prasanta Tripathy, from the Indian voluntary organisation Ekjut, evaluated how women's groups affected neonatal mortality and maternal depression in intervention areas as compared to areas where no participatory groups were set up. The groups were evaluated using a cluster-randomised controlled trial, which was funded by the Health Foundation, the UK Department for International Development, the Wellcome Trust and the UK Big Lottery Fund.

The groups were facilitated by women recruited in the local area, non-healthcare professionals who tended to be married, with some schooling, and a respected member of the community. The number of women taking part of in the groups increased from one in six women (17%) of childbearing age in the first year to over a half (55%) in the third year.

The women worked through a 'community action cycle' involving four stages: identifying the problems associated with pregnancy, childbirth and care of newborns; developing strategies to tackle these problems, such as improving hygiene, raising emergency funds and producing their own birthing kits; working with local community leaders, teachers, politicians and others to implement these strategies, and; evaluating their success.

"It was crucial that the women were allowed to think thought through the issues and implement their own strategies to tackle them, rather than us telling them what to do," says .. Dr Nirmala Nair of Ekjut. "We believe that a trained facilitator who supports informed peer learning is more effective for lasting behaviour change than a traditional instructor/learner approach."

The effects of the interventions were dramatic: by the second and third years of the trial, the neonatal mortality rate in the areas where the participatory women's groups existed had fallen by 45%. These areas also saw a significant fall (57%) in moderate depression amongst mothers by the third year of the trial.

"What we were seeing was a change in behaviour towards better hygiene practices and improved care for newborns," explains Professor Costello. "There was a move away from harmful practices such as giving birth in unclean environments and delaying breastfeeding. We saw significant improvements in areas such as basic hygiene by birth attendants, clean cord care and women responding earlier to care needs."

The researchers believe that improved social capital – the access the group gave women to a wider support network of peers – was potentially the most valuable aspect of the groups and would have contributed towards the improved childbirth and childcare practices and the reduction in maternal depression. It may also explain why such groups have had much greater success than direct – even one-to-one – interventions with healthcare workers.

"Many of the women in these groups would have been relatively young, living in arranged marriages with only their mother-in-law or a very limited network of friends for support," explains Dr Audrey Prost from UCL. "The groups empower the women to take preventive measures and to deal with problems more effectively when they arise. If you've been to a group and a problem arises, you've got a ready-made network that you can go to for help and support."

The researchers estimate that the additional cost on introducing support to these groups per newborn life saved was around US$910. However, this raises questions over who would pay for supporting these groups: federal or state government, non-governmental organisations, or a combination of the two.

The Lancet today also publishes a second study carried out by Professor Costello and colleagues using the same approach – women's groups – in Bangladesh. The study failed to reproduce the benefits of the India trial. However, in this case, the researchers believe that there were a number of issues which may have affected the outcome, including a failure to achieve the same coverage of women's groups and recruitment of pregnant women as the India trial.

Craig Brierley | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Multi-year study finds 'hotspots' of ammonia over world's major agricultural areas
17.03.2017 | University of Maryland

nachricht Diabetes Drug May Improve Bone Fat-induced Defects of Fracture Healing
17.03.2017 | Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbrücke

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

When Air is in Short Supply - Shedding light on plant stress reactions when oxygen runs short

23.03.2017 | Life Sciences

Researchers use light to remotely control curvature of plastics

23.03.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Sea ice extent sinks to record lows at both poles

23.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>