New findings from Van Andel Research Institute (VARI) scientists could lead to environmentally-friendly sprays that help plants survive drought and other stresses in harsh environments to combat global food shortages. The study is a follow-up to findings published in Nature last year that were named among the top breakthroughs of 2009 by Science magazine.
“I think that the work established the methodologies and feasibilities of finding cheap and environmentally benign chemicals for agricultural application to improve the water use efficiency and drought tolerance of crops,” said Jian-Kang Zhu, Professor of Botany and Presidential Chair of Botany & Plant Sciences at the University of California, Riverside. “The work also provides a better understanding of ABA receptor function, which will help efforts in the genetic engineering of hardier crops.”
In a 2009 study published in Nature, VARI scientists determined precisely how the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) works at the molecular level to help plants respond to environmental stresses such as drought and cold. These findings could help engineer crops that thrive in harsh environments.
One of ABA’s effects is to cause plant pores to close when plants are stressed so that they can retain water. In the new study, researchers identified several synthetic compounds that fit well with ABA’s many receptors, or cellular “docking stations,” to have the same effect. By finding compounds that can close these pores, researchers’ findings could lead to sprays that use a plant’s natural defenses to help it survive harsh environmental conditions.
“Sprays would allow plants to be much more adaptable than if we genetically engineered them,” said Karsten Melcher, Ph.D., one of the lead authors of the study and research scientist in the VARI Laboratory of Structural Biology led by Distinguished Scientific Investigator H. Eric Xu. “You could spray plants to close the pores only when drought or other harsh conditions threaten the plant.”
The lab originally began studying ABA because a proposed ABA receptor was reported to be a member of a group of proteins that the lab studies, which are targeted by more than 50% of all drugs on the market. It was later found that the receptor was not part of this group of proteins, but Xu’s lab continued its’ studies.
The findings appear in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology alongside a companion paper from authors Francis C. Peterson (first author), Brian Volkman, Davin R. Jensen, and Joshua J. Weiner from the Medical College of Wisconsin, Sean Cutler, Sang-Youl Park and Chia-An Chang from University of California, Riverside (UCR), and Sethe Burgie, Craig A. Bingman, and George Phillips, Jr., from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. A third parallel study has also been reported by Dr. Nieng Yan’s group in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
“Last year Dr. Xu and his lab offered the plant community the long-awaited key to creating drought-resistant crops,” said VARI President and Research Director Dr. Jeffrey Trent. “Only a few short months later, and they already have taken huge strides further toward the ultimate goal of helping combat world hunger.”
This publication was made possible in part by Grant Numbers DK066202 (10%), and GM087413 (10%) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences respectively. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases or the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.
(LS-CAT) is in part funded by the Michigan Economic Development Corporation and the Michigan Technology Tri-Corridor (grant 085P1000817). Use of the Advanced Photon Source was supported by the Office of Science of the U. S. Department of Energy.About Van Andel Institute
Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
20.10.2017 | Information Technology
20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research