New findings from Van Andel Research Institute (VARI) scientists could lead to environmentally-friendly sprays that help plants survive drought and other stresses in harsh environments to combat global food shortages. The study is a follow-up to findings published in Nature last year that were named among the top breakthroughs of 2009 by Science magazine.
“I think that the work established the methodologies and feasibilities of finding cheap and environmentally benign chemicals for agricultural application to improve the water use efficiency and drought tolerance of crops,” said Jian-Kang Zhu, Professor of Botany and Presidential Chair of Botany & Plant Sciences at the University of California, Riverside. “The work also provides a better understanding of ABA receptor function, which will help efforts in the genetic engineering of hardier crops.”
In a 2009 study published in Nature, VARI scientists determined precisely how the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) works at the molecular level to help plants respond to environmental stresses such as drought and cold. These findings could help engineer crops that thrive in harsh environments.
One of ABA’s effects is to cause plant pores to close when plants are stressed so that they can retain water. In the new study, researchers identified several synthetic compounds that fit well with ABA’s many receptors, or cellular “docking stations,” to have the same effect. By finding compounds that can close these pores, researchers’ findings could lead to sprays that use a plant’s natural defenses to help it survive harsh environmental conditions.
“Sprays would allow plants to be much more adaptable than if we genetically engineered them,” said Karsten Melcher, Ph.D., one of the lead authors of the study and research scientist in the VARI Laboratory of Structural Biology led by Distinguished Scientific Investigator H. Eric Xu. “You could spray plants to close the pores only when drought or other harsh conditions threaten the plant.”
The lab originally began studying ABA because a proposed ABA receptor was reported to be a member of a group of proteins that the lab studies, which are targeted by more than 50% of all drugs on the market. It was later found that the receptor was not part of this group of proteins, but Xu’s lab continued its’ studies.
The findings appear in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology alongside a companion paper from authors Francis C. Peterson (first author), Brian Volkman, Davin R. Jensen, and Joshua J. Weiner from the Medical College of Wisconsin, Sean Cutler, Sang-Youl Park and Chia-An Chang from University of California, Riverside (UCR), and Sethe Burgie, Craig A. Bingman, and George Phillips, Jr., from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. A third parallel study has also been reported by Dr. Nieng Yan’s group in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
“Last year Dr. Xu and his lab offered the plant community the long-awaited key to creating drought-resistant crops,” said VARI President and Research Director Dr. Jeffrey Trent. “Only a few short months later, and they already have taken huge strides further toward the ultimate goal of helping combat world hunger.”
This publication was made possible in part by Grant Numbers DK066202 (10%), and GM087413 (10%) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences respectively. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases or the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.
(LS-CAT) is in part funded by the Michigan Economic Development Corporation and the Michigan Technology Tri-Corridor (grant 085P1000817). Use of the Advanced Photon Source was supported by the Office of Science of the U. S. Department of Energy.About Van Andel Institute
Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT
Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
09.12.2016 | Life Sciences
09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine