In the absence of agreement on the meaning of "urbanisation", the European Commission and the World Bank are proposing a new definition based on a unique mapping of “Accessibility” called the Agglomeration Index.
Key findings suggest that:
• we passed the point at which more than half the world’s populations live in cities around the turn of the Millennium (2000) - much earlier than the 2007/8 estimate;
• more than half of the world's population lives less than 1 hour from a major city, but the breakdown is 85% of the developed world and only 35% of the developing world;
• 95% of the world's population is concentrated on just 10% of the world's land; but
• only 10% of the world's land area is classified as "remote" or more than 48 hours from a large city.
Indermit Gill, Director of the World Development Report 2009 commented: “Economic growth requires changes not just in what people do but also changes in where they live, learn, and work". He added: "This map is a real first and provides a stunning snapshot of the decline of distance, enabling places and people to prosper."
Leen Hordijk, Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability of the EC's Joint Research Centre, whose scientists prepared the new map, commented: "We have risen to the challenge of combining various information sources with the latest mapping technologies to produce a unique and timely product for the World Bank. Our map raises the question: For how much longer will remote ecosystems remain remote? Many are crucial to the healthy functioning of our planet."How does the mapping work?
Taking scientists twelve months to complete, the result is a global map of travel time to over 8,500 major cities. This, in turn, allows scientists to establish a new globally consistent measure - the Agglomeration Index - which will facilitate the work of the World Bank and other international organisations when monitoring the effects of urbanisation.The world's population is concentrating in cities
Cities exercise enormous control over national economies - even the global economy. They provide jobs, access to the best cultural, educational and health facilities and they act as hubs for communication and transport. Of course, they also cluster massive demands for energy, generate large quantities of waste, and concentrate pollution as well as social hardship.Redefining 'urban'
Because of advances in transport systems and networks we are better connected than ever before. This new map demonstrates how accessible some parts of the world are, indicating increased opportunities for travel, trade, communication and interaction.
This map also serves as a stark reminder that the price of greater connectivity is that there is little wilderness left. While only 10% of the world is more than 48 hours from a large city, our wilderness has shrunk to the highest of the mountains, such as the Plateau of Tibet and the extremes of the high latitudes, such as the boreal forests and ice sheets. Even the deserts and tropical forests are not the inaccessible wild lands they once were.
To find out more:
• A free copy of Travel Time to Major Cities is available at: http://gem.jrc.ec.europa.eu
• The 2009 World Bank World Development Report is available at: www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
• Joint Research Centre: www.jrc.ec.europa.eu
• Aidan Gilligan, JRC Press Officer, firstname.lastname@example.org; +32 (0)2 2986482.
New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)
Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences