Researchers from the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) and the University of British Columbia today released a comprehensive study revealing that the 2008 IAS-USA therapy guidelines for commencing HIV treatment would create significant benefits for individuals infected with HIV and society as a whole.
The peer-reviewed mathematical modeling study, published in the research journal PLoS ONE, shows that full implementation of HIV treatment guidelines updated in 2008 by the International AIDS Society (IAS) would lead to more people entering treatment in British Columbia (B.C.). In addition, the study shows an increase in lives saved, billions of dollars in costs averted, and a significant decrease in HIV infections.
"The study results are critically important because they reinforce the significant individual and societal benefits of starting earlier HIV treatment and provide further momentum for treatment as prevention, which – in the absence of a vaccine or cure – remains the best way to contain and halt the spread of HIV," said Dr. Julio Montaner, Director, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS; President, IAS; and the Chair in AIDS Research and Head of Division of AIDS in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of British Columbia.
When the study was conducted, 4,379 people were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in B.C. under 2006 guidelines, and an additional 6,781 individuals qualified for treatment based on the 2008 guidelines. Approximately 12,300 people were infected with HIV in B.C. at the end of 2005, with 25 per cent to 30 per cent of HIV-infected individuals unaware of their HIV status. The BC-CfE estimated the impact of HAART expansion in B.C. based on 2008 guidelines for different expansion scenarios, and focused on the 50 per cent and 75 per cent coverage of those medically eligible to receive HAART treatment. All scenarios were compared to the treatment coverage in B.C. under the 2006 IAS guidelines.
Results demonstrated that HAART expansion would result in a prompt decrease in HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality and a decrease in new HIV infections. In five years, if the 50 per cent coverage scenario was adopted, B.C. was expected to avert 1,360 HIV infections, prevent the loss of 4,155 person years of disability and mortality, and avoid approximately $21 million in health care costs. Under this scenario, in 40 years 11,387 new HIV infections would be averted and the equivalent of $4.2 billion in HIV lifetime treatment costs could be avoided.
If coverage were increased to 75 per cent of medically eligible people, BC-CfE estimated that 14,911 new HIV infections would be averted in 40 years, representing $5.6 billion in avoided lifetime HIV treatment costs.
HAART, the landmark drug cocktail that was partially developed at the BC-CfE, has been adopted in Canada and around the world as the gold standard treatment for HIV. At an individual level, HAART stops HIV from progressing to AIDS, extends life expectancy, and significantly reduces HIV-related morbidity and mortality. At a community level, there is strong and growing evidence that people with HIV who are appropriately treated become dramatically less likely to transmit the virus.
The 2008 IAS-USA guidelines substantially expanded eligibility to HAART by, among other factors, raising the CD4 cell count at which treatment starts and recommending immediate treatment for those with underlying health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, HIV-associated nephropathy, and chronic hepatitis B or C.
Implementing the revised IAS-USA guidelines for the use of HAART in adults is associated with many challenges, including significant up-front costs. However, the BC-CfE analysis demonstrates that ramping up HAART would be highly cost-effective and cost-averting to the health care system within a decade.
This model was based on the epidemic in B.C., which is concentrated among men who have sex with men and injection drug users. Most other parts of the world have generalized epidemics. Such differences should be taken into account when reviewing B.C.'s results in the context of the epidemic in other areas.
"HAART expansion based on the 2008 IAS-USA guidelines has tremendous potential to further improve health outcomes among HIV-infected individuals in B.C. and throughout the world," said Montaner. "Furthermore, under the BC-CfE's treatment as prevention program, expanding HAART coverage could substantially change the course of the HIV epidemic by decreasing rates of HIV transmission, tuberculosis, malaria and other infectious diseases and therefore curbing the growth of the HIV epidemic."
The HIV epidemic remains challenging. In 2008, an estimated 33 million individuals were living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.7 million became HIV infected and two million died from AIDS-related causes.
The B.C. provincial government has invested $48 million over four years in a pilot project to expand HAART treatment called Seek and Treat. It will expand access to HIV/AIDS medications among hard-to-reach populations, including sex trade workers, injection drug users and men who have sex with men. By engaging more British Columbians living with HIV/AIDS in HAART, better care will be provided and the treatment will significantly reduce or eliminate the virus' ability to spread. B.C.'s Seek and Treat program is being evaluated as part of the BC-CfE's innovative research program, Seek and Treat for the Optimal Prevention of HIV/AIDS (STOP HIV/AIDS). STOP HIV/AIDS has received a US$2.5 million Avant Garde Award from the US National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) of the National Institutes of Health.
Funding for the study regarding the expansion of HAART under the 2008 IAS-USA guidelines was received from NIDA, Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research.
For a copy of the report, Expanding HAART Treatment to All Currently Eligible Individuals Under the 2008 IAS-USA Guidelines in British Columbia, Canada, please visit http://www.cfenet.ubc.ca/publications/ias-usa-guidelines.
Journalists can also link to the scientific article in online versions of their reports: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010991.
About the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS:
The BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) is Canada's largest HIV/AIDS research, treatment and education facility. The BC-CfE is based at St Paul's Hospital, Providence Health Care, a teaching hospital of the University of British Columbia. The BC-CfE is dedicated to improving the health of British Columbians with HIV through developing, monitoring and disseminating comprehensive research and treatment programs for HIV and related diseases.
About the University of British Columbia
The University of British Columbia is one of Canada's largest and most prestigious public research and teaching institutions. Located in the Pacific Rim gateway of Vancouver, one of the world's great cities, and in the Interior city of Kelowna, UBC is a global centre of research and learning. It offers more than 50,000 students a range of innovative undergraduate, graduate and professional programs in the arts, sciences, medicine, law, commerce and other faculties. UBC consistently attracts more than $450 million per year in research funding from government, non-profit organizations and industry through7,000 grants.
About PLoS ONE
PLoS ONE is the first journal of primary research from all areas of science to employ a combination of peer review and post-publication rating and commenting, to maximize the impact of every report it publishes. PLoS ONE is published by the Public Library of Science (PLoS), the open-access publisher whose goal is to make the world's scientific and medical literature a public resource.
Graham Pollock | EurekAlert!
Multi-year study finds 'hotspots' of ammonia over world's major agricultural areas
17.03.2017 | University of Maryland
Diabetes Drug May Improve Bone Fat-induced Defects of Fracture Healing
17.03.2017 | Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbrücke
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy