Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Tree killers, yes, fire starters, no: Mountain pine beetles get a bad rap, study says

30.09.2014

Mountain pine beetles get a bad rap, and understandably so. The grain-of-rice-sized insects are responsible for killing pine trees over tens of millions of acres in the Western U.S. and Canada over the last decade.

But contrary to popular belief, these pests may not be to blame for more severe wildfires like those that have recently swept through the region. Instead, weather and topography play a greater role in the ecological severity of fires than these bark-boring beetles.

New research led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Washington State Department of Natural Resources provides some of the first rigorous field data to test whether fires that burn in areas impacted by mountain pine beetles are more ecologically severe than in those not attacked by the native bug.

In a study published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, UW-Madison zoology professor Monica Turner and her graduate student, Brian Harvey, show pine beetle outbreaks contributed little to the severity of six wildfires that affected more than 75,000 acres in the Northern Rocky Mountains in 2011.

They also show that the beetle outbreaks, which occurred from 2000 through 2010, have not directly impacted post-fire recovery of the forests. The study does not, however, address fire behavior, such as how quickly fires spread or how dangerous they are to fight.

While the findings may exonerate the insect scapegoats, they should also help ecosystem managers better respond to changes in the face of climate-driven disturbances, like drought and warmer temperatures.

Large, severe fires are typical in the lodgepole pine forests found throughout the region, even without mountain pine beetle outbreaks. However, as the climate has warmed, outbreaks and big fires have both become more common. The phenomenon of more beetles has meant more dead trees, and some have grown concerned about how beetle attacks and wildfires may interact.

"The conventional wisdom is that a forest of dead trees is a tinder box just waiting to burn up," says Turner, who has long studied the forest landscape of the Mountain West. "There were very little data out there but a lot of concern."

Forests attacked by bark beetles — which burrow into the bark of lodgepole pines to mate and incubate their larvae — can seem nothing more than ample kindling for a raging blaze, with their dead wood and dry, reddish-brown needles.

The burrows the beetles carve under the bark of pines, called galleries, choke off water and nutrient circulation in the trees. The trees die and, for the first couple of years, they hold on to their dry, lifeless needles. Scientists call this the "red stage," and some believe these trees could fuel more severe fires.

By year three, most beetle-attacked trees have entered the "gray stage," dropping their once green pine foliage, becoming needleless wood carcasses.

Earlier studies from Turner's group suggested that beetle outbreaks would not lead to more severe fires. But without actual fires, the interaction could not be tested.

However, in 2011, wildfires throughout eastern Idaho and western Montana — in forests that had experienced varying mountain pine beetle outbreak impacts — provided opportunity for the research team to begin to answer the question: Do the two disturbances, beetle attacks and wildfire, together change the ecological response of the forest to fire?

Fortunately for the team, among the burned areas studied were pine stands that had not been attacked by beetles. These areas served as controls. Others suffered a range of mortality from the beetles; in some stands, beetles killed nearly 90 percent of the trees prior to wildfire. The fires that raged also ran the spectrum of severity, allowing the researchers to compare a number of variables.

Some study plots comprised mostly live trees, while others contained mostly red-stage or gray-stage trees — allowing the researchers to assess whether plots with red-stage trees (with dry needles) experienced greater levels of fire severity than plots with mostly gray-stage trees (no needles), as they and others had expected.

The study team examined ecosystem indicators of fire severity, such as how many trees were killed by fire and how much char covered the forests.

Engaging in what Harvey calls "post-fire detective work," in 2012, the scientific team evaluated fire severity in each study plot and stripped sections of bark from over 10,000 trees to determine what killed them, beetles or fire. Beetle galleries can remain visible under the bark even after fire.

As they sifted through the blackened trees and forest floor, the team became covered with ash and soot.

"We looked like coal miners when we were done," says Harvey.

They found that the severity of the outbreak and whether trees were in the red or gray stage had almost no effect on fire severity under moderate burning conditions.

Only under more extreme fire-burning conditions — when it was hot, dry and windy — did areas with more beetle-killed trees show signs of more ecologically severe fires, such as more deeply burned trunks and crowns (the part of the tree that includes its limbs and needles). The presence of more gray-stage trees actually had a stronger impact on fire severity than the amount of red-stage trees, to the surprise of the scientists.

Overall, however, Turner says the effects of beetle outbreaks on fire severity took a back seat to stronger drivers — primarily weather and topography. Fire severity increased under more extreme weather, regardless of pre-fire outbreaks, and forest stands higher in the landscape burned more severely than those at lower elevation as fires moved uphill, building momentum.

"No one says beetle-killed forests won't burn," says Turner. "The data set looks at whether they burn with different severity compared to unattacked forests burning under similar conditions."

The team was also interested in whether beetle outbreaks slowed the recovery of the forests after fires. Lodgepole pines are adapted to fire, containing two types of seed-carrying cones: those that release seeds as soon as they mature and those that require fire to open, blanketing the forest floor with potential new life following a blaze.

By counting the number of post-fire tree seedlings in their plots, the researchers found very little beetle-related impact. Tree seedlings were most numerous where more of the fire-killed trees bore the fire-adapted, or serotinous, cones. Beetle-killed trees likely contributed to post-fire seedling establishment, too, as their seeds remain viable in cones if they are not consumed in fire. Only high-reaching char from tall flames reduced the number of seed-spreading cones.

The scientists emphasize the results may differ in other forest types or with different lengths of time between beetle outbreaks and fire.

"These are both natural disturbances, fire and beetle outbreaks," says Turner. "It's not surprising the ecosystem has these mechanisms to be resilient. What we as people see as catastrophes are not always catastrophes to the ecosystem."

###

The study was funded by Joint Fire Science Program Grants and the National Park Service/George Melendez Wright Climate Change Fellowship.

— Kelly April Tyrrell, ktyrrell2@wisc.edu, 608-262-9772

Monica Turner | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.wisc.edu/

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT

nachricht Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Closing the carbon loop

08.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Applicability of dynamic facilitation theory to binary hard disk systems

08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D

08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>