The incidence of ischemic stroke also increased by 30 percent in the quartile of women consuming the highest daily amount of trans fat (average intake 7 grams per day) compared to those who consumed the least (average 1 gram/day). Two common sources of trans fat are processed foods and fried foods.
Ischemic strokes are caused by blockages in blood vessels in or leading to the brain.
“We found positive associations between total fat intake and ischemic stroke incidence and between trans fat intake and ischemic stroke incidence,” said Sirin Yaemsiri, M.S.P.H., a doctoral student in the department of epidemiology in the Gillings School of Global Public Health at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill.
The study is the first to examine the associations of different fats and different subtypes of ischemic stroke in post-menopausal women, who face a higher stroke risk than men of a similar age.
Evidence from other studies shows that different types of fat have different effects on the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), with trans fat implicated in the development of CHD. However, studies of ischemic stroke and fat have been inconclusive, possibly because earlier studies had small numbers of ischemic stroke cases.
Before menopause, women have a lower risk of stroke compared to men of similar age, a situation that reverses after menopause, Yaemsiri said.
The analysis included data on 87,230 post-menopausal women ages 50 to 79 who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study, a project sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The women answered a food frequency questionnaire when they entered the study and were followed for an average of 7.6 years, the researchers said. During that time, 1,049 ischemic strokes occurred.
Researchers looked for links between dietary fat intake and four ischemic stroke subtypes, which were characterized by their size or point of origin. However, the data on ischemic stroke subtypes fell short of statistical significance, perhaps because strokes are difficult to characterize and 43 percent (445 cases) of the ischemic strokes in the study were of unknown type, Yaemsiri said.
Researchers divided the women into quartiles based on the amount of total dietary fat and types of fat (saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and trans fat) they reported consuming per day.
Variables included age, race, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol or aspirin use, body mass index, hormone therapy, heart disease history, diabetes, systolic blood pressure and whether the women took medication for high blood pressure or to reduce cholesterol, vitamin E supplementation, fruit/vegetable intake, total calories and dietary fiber.
Women in the top quartile for total fat intake had an average intake of 86 grams of total fat per day. Those in the lowest quartile consumed an average of 26 grams a day.
“I think our findings support the American Heart Association recommendations for keeping trans fat intake at less than 1 percent of energy,” said Ka He, M.D., Sc.D., M.P.H., senior author of the study and associate professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health.
Trans fats can be found in many foods – especially in fried foods like french fries and doughnuts, and baked goods including pastries, pie crusts, biscuits, pizza dough, cookies, crackers and stick margarines and shortenings.Co-authors are Souvik Sen, M.D., M.S.; Lesley Tinker, Ph.D., R.D.; Wayne Rosamond, Ph.D.; and Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Ph.D.
The WHI program is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. This study was supported by a grant funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and Yaemsiri’s work was supported by an American Heart Association Mid-Atlantic Predoctoral Fellowship. Author disclosures are on the abstract.
Click here to download audio clips offering perspective on this research from American Stroke Association spokesperson, Emil Matarese, M.D., Director, Stroke Center, Saint Mary Medical Center, Langhorne, Penn.
Editor’s note: Learn more about the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association’s advocacy efforts to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of stroke in women. Visit www.strokeassociation.org/advocacy.
Statements and conclusions of study authors that are presented at American Heart Association/American Stroke Association scientific meetings are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect association policy or position. The association makes no representation or warranty as to their accuracy or reliability. The association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific association programs and events. The association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing science content. Revenues from pharmaceutical and device corporations are available at www.americanheart.org/corporatefunding.
NR10-1014 (ISC 2010/Yaemsiri)
Bridgette McNeill | EurekAlert!
Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung
Scientists reveal source of human heartbeat in 3-D
07.08.2017 | University of Manchester
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
18.08.2017 | Life Sciences
18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences