The incidence of ischemic stroke also increased by 30 percent in the quartile of women consuming the highest daily amount of trans fat (average intake 7 grams per day) compared to those who consumed the least (average 1 gram/day). Two common sources of trans fat are processed foods and fried foods.
Ischemic strokes are caused by blockages in blood vessels in or leading to the brain.
“We found positive associations between total fat intake and ischemic stroke incidence and between trans fat intake and ischemic stroke incidence,” said Sirin Yaemsiri, M.S.P.H., a doctoral student in the department of epidemiology in the Gillings School of Global Public Health at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill.
The study is the first to examine the associations of different fats and different subtypes of ischemic stroke in post-menopausal women, who face a higher stroke risk than men of a similar age.
Evidence from other studies shows that different types of fat have different effects on the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), with trans fat implicated in the development of CHD. However, studies of ischemic stroke and fat have been inconclusive, possibly because earlier studies had small numbers of ischemic stroke cases.
Before menopause, women have a lower risk of stroke compared to men of similar age, a situation that reverses after menopause, Yaemsiri said.
The analysis included data on 87,230 post-menopausal women ages 50 to 79 who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study, a project sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The women answered a food frequency questionnaire when they entered the study and were followed for an average of 7.6 years, the researchers said. During that time, 1,049 ischemic strokes occurred.
Researchers looked for links between dietary fat intake and four ischemic stroke subtypes, which were characterized by their size or point of origin. However, the data on ischemic stroke subtypes fell short of statistical significance, perhaps because strokes are difficult to characterize and 43 percent (445 cases) of the ischemic strokes in the study were of unknown type, Yaemsiri said.
Researchers divided the women into quartiles based on the amount of total dietary fat and types of fat (saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and trans fat) they reported consuming per day.
Variables included age, race, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol or aspirin use, body mass index, hormone therapy, heart disease history, diabetes, systolic blood pressure and whether the women took medication for high blood pressure or to reduce cholesterol, vitamin E supplementation, fruit/vegetable intake, total calories and dietary fiber.
Women in the top quartile for total fat intake had an average intake of 86 grams of total fat per day. Those in the lowest quartile consumed an average of 26 grams a day.
“I think our findings support the American Heart Association recommendations for keeping trans fat intake at less than 1 percent of energy,” said Ka He, M.D., Sc.D., M.P.H., senior author of the study and associate professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health.
Trans fats can be found in many foods – especially in fried foods like french fries and doughnuts, and baked goods including pastries, pie crusts, biscuits, pizza dough, cookies, crackers and stick margarines and shortenings.Co-authors are Souvik Sen, M.D., M.S.; Lesley Tinker, Ph.D., R.D.; Wayne Rosamond, Ph.D.; and Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Ph.D.
The WHI program is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. This study was supported by a grant funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and Yaemsiri’s work was supported by an American Heart Association Mid-Atlantic Predoctoral Fellowship. Author disclosures are on the abstract.
Click here to download audio clips offering perspective on this research from American Stroke Association spokesperson, Emil Matarese, M.D., Director, Stroke Center, Saint Mary Medical Center, Langhorne, Penn.
Editor’s note: Learn more about the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association’s advocacy efforts to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of stroke in women. Visit www.strokeassociation.org/advocacy.
Statements and conclusions of study authors that are presented at American Heart Association/American Stroke Association scientific meetings are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect association policy or position. The association makes no representation or warranty as to their accuracy or reliability. The association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific association programs and events. The association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing science content. Revenues from pharmaceutical and device corporations are available at www.americanheart.org/corporatefunding.
NR10-1014 (ISC 2010/Yaemsiri)
Bridgette McNeill | EurekAlert!
Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
20.10.2017 | Information Technology
20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research