It’s clear that time and numbers are related in daily life, says Denise Wu of National Central University of Taiwan, who cowrote the new study with Acer Chang, Ovid Tzeng, and Daisy Hung. Numbers are used to represent distance and size, and to go to a farther place usually takes a longer time, for example.
But, she says, “Because the tradition of psychology is to manipulate one key variable of interest while controlling other confounding variables as much as possible, these domains were treated independently.” Recently, more researchers have started looking at how time and numbers are associated. Wu and her coauthors wanted to look more closely at this relationship, so they came up with a way to look at how numbers interfere with people’s perception of time.
In one experiment, each participant sat in front of a computer screen while a single-digit number appeared on the screen for a short time less than a second. After the number disappeared, the word “NOW” appeared on the screen, and the participant was supposed to hold down a key on the keyboard for as long as they thought the number had been displayed. The interaction between time and number was clear: after seeing a large number, like 9, people held the key down for longer than they did for a smaller number, like 2.
In another experiment, people saw a green dot for a short time. When they were asked to press the key, their key-press responses were accompanied by a number on the screen. In that case, they held down the key longer if they saw a small number and for a shorter time if they saw a large number. Wu thinks that happens because the small number makes people think they haven’t held down the key for long enough yet.
“We are really excited about this because this means the influence of the digit is so automatic and so immediate,” she says. The results suggest that the brain somehow processes time and the size of numbers together—possibly even with the same neurons. So, maybe instead of having different parts of the brain devoted to different kinds of measurement, there’s some part of the brain that is generally responsible for thinking about magnitude.
“It shows that it’s not like, mentally, we have a clock and it is immune to all the other information,” Wu says. Instead, your concept of time is responding to other things going on in the brain. In this case, it’s numbers, but it might also be influenced by emotion. For example, we all know that time passes more slowly in a boring meeting than when you’re chatting with a friend; maybe this is related to the ways that timekeeping links to other functions in the brain.
For more information about this study, please contact: Denise Wu at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The APS journal Psychological Science is the highest ranked empirical journal in psychology. For a copy of the article "Big time is not always long: Numerical magnitude automatically affects time reproduction" and access to other Psychological Science research findings, please contact Divya Menon at 202-293-9300 or email@example.com.
Divya Menon | EurekAlert!
The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung
A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
11.01.2017 | University of Gothenburg
For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.
According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
24.01.2017 | Earth Sciences
24.01.2017 | Life Sciences
24.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy