Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Team studies immune response of Asian elephants infected with a human disease

16.07.2014

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the organism that causes tuberculosis in humans, also afflicts Asian (and occasionally other) elephants.

Diagnosing and treating elephants with TB is a challenge, however, as little is known about how their immune systems respond to the infection. A new study begins to address this knowledge gap, and offers new tools for detecting and monitoring TB in captive elephants.


Researchers develop new tools to detect and monitor tuberculosis in Asian elephants.

Credit: Photo courtesy of Jennifer Landolfi

The study, reported in the journal Tuberculosis, is the work of researchers at the University of Illinois Zoological Pathology Program (ZPP), a division of the veterinary diagnostic lab at the College of Veterinary Medicine in Urbana-Champaign. ZPP is based in Chicago, serving zoos and wildlife in the region and beyond.

More than 50 elephants in captivity in the U.S. have been diagnosed with tuberculosis since 1994, the research team reports. The evidence suggests that humans can transmit the disease to elephants and that elephants also may serve as a source of exposure for humans.

When infected, elephants may appear healthy or only show general symptoms, such as weight loss, that could be associated with a variety of maladies, said Jennifer Landolfi, a veterinary pathologist who led the new research. Most cases are found as a result of routine tests which involve checking the blood for antibodies against TB, or collecting samples from an elephant's trunk and culturing the bacteria it harbors.

But these approaches are problematic, Landolfi said. Culturing mycobacteria takes time and is imprecise, while antibody responses may take weeks to develop and only indicate exposure, not necessarily infection or disease.

"We are always trying to improve and seek out new diagnostics that will allow for earlier, more accurate detection of this infection," she said. "We also need to find ways to monitor the treatment response."

In humans, exposure to tuberculosis rarely results in full-fledged disease. Most people's immune systems eradicate the bacterium or at least keep the disease at bay, Landolfi said.

"Less than 10 percent of the people who are exposed actually develop the disease," she said. In those cases, an inadequate immune response is almost always to blame. "Our hypothesis is that something similar is happening in the Asian elephants."

To test this, Landolfi and her colleagues looked at protein mediators that are part of an elephant's immune system. These small signaling molecules, called cytokines (SIGH-toe-kines), spur a cascade of cellular reactions that help the body fight infection. But detecting cytokines in elephants is difficult because antibodies that target elephant cytokines are not available.

"Instead of trying to detect the cytokines using antibodies, we said, 'why don't we take a step back and detect the nucleotides that code for those proteins?'" Landolfi said. "We're talking about messenger RNA (mRNA), which is used by the cell to synthesize these proteins."

After developing the tools to detect cytokine mRNA in elephants, the researchers collected blood from 8 TB-positive and 8 TB-negative Asian elephants, and isolated the white blood cells. They exposed the cells to proteins associated with TB and then analyzed the cell culture for expression of certain cytokines.

Their analysis showed that TB-positive and TB-negative elephants differed in their immune responses after exposure to TB bacterial proteins.

"The cytokines were at higher levels in the positive animals," Landolfi said. "That suggested that those animals had more of an immune reaction when they were exposed [to proteins associated with TB] than the animals that were negative."

If confirmed in future studies, the findings suggest a faster and more reliable way to diagnose TB in captive elephants, Landolfi said. The same kinds of tests are already used in humans.

"That is something that we want to move towards with elephants," she said. "Most of the elephants don't show us a lot of signs of disease, and even when they do appear to be sick, it's very non-specific."

This makes it difficult to diagnose them and to determine if treatment is working, she said. Having a new way to monitor the elephants' immune response would improve both tasks, she said.

###

Editor's notes: To reach Jennifer Landolfi, call 708-216-1185; email landolfi@illinois.edu.

The paper, "Differences in immune cell function between tuberculosis positive and negative Asian elephants," is available online or from the U. of I. News Bureau. 

Diana Yates | University of Illinois

Further reports about: TB TuBerculosis cytokines elephants immune mRNA mycobacteria proteins

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Multi-year study finds 'hotspots' of ammonia over world's major agricultural areas
17.03.2017 | University of Maryland

nachricht Diabetes Drug May Improve Bone Fat-induced Defects of Fracture Healing
17.03.2017 | Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbrücke

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>