It's a high-pressure environment within solid tumors. Abnormal blood and lymphatic vessels cause fluids to accumulate, and the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells within limited space leads to the buildup of what is called solid stress.
Both types of pressure can interfere with the effectiveness of anticancer treatments, but while strategies have been developed that reduce fluid pressures, little has been known about the impact of solid stress or potential ways to alleviate it. Now a Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) research team has identified factors that contribute to solid stress within tumors, suggesting possible ways to alleviate it, and has developed a simple way to measure such pressures.
"Traditionally cancer research has focused on cancer cells and, more recently, on the biochemical microenvironment of tumors," says Rakesh Jain, PhD, director of the Steele Laboratory for Tumor Biology at MGH and senior author of the study in the Sept. 18 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "Our work shows that the physical or mechanical microenvironment plays an equally important role in tumor progression and treatment resistance."
Jain and his colleagues have been leaders in understanding the impact of elevated fluid pressures that make it difficult for drugs to enter and permeate tumors. Their work showed that fluid pressures are relieved when antiangiogenesis drugs normalize the abnormal blood vessels characteristically found within solid tumors, improving the effectiveness of other anticancer therapies. But that approach can only work if vessels have not been squeezed shut by solid stress in surrounding tissues. In recent studies Jain's team showed that solid stress also increases the invasiveness of cancer cells.
The current study was designed to develop techniques that measure solid stress in tumors, to identify factors that contribute to the generation of this solid stress and to determine whether previously compressed blood vessels would open when stress-inducing components were depleted. Based on predictions from mathematical models, the MGH-based team developed a remarkably simple way to measure solid stress within tumor tissues.
In experiments using both tumors experimentally grown in mice and tumors removed from human patients, the researchers found that, when a solid tumor is cut in two, each segment begins to swell along the sliced surface, releasing stored solid stress. In contrast, when a sample of normal tissue is cut in two, the separated halves of tissue retain their size and shape (links to video files below). Measuring the extent of shape relaxation along with other mechanical properties of tumor tissue enabled calculation of the amount of solid stress within a tumor sample.
Massachusetts General Hospital, founded in 1811, is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. The MGH conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the United States, with an annual research budget of more than $750 million and major research centers in AIDS, cardiovascular research, cancer, computational and integrative biology, cutaneous biology, human genetics, medical imaging, neurodegenerative disorders, regenerative medicine, reproductive biology, systems biology, transplantation biology and photomedicine. In July 2012, MGH moved into the number one spot on the 2012-13 U.S. News & World Report list of "America's Best Hospitals."
Sue McGreevey | EurekAlert!
Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy