Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Tamiflu Metabolite Measured in Japanese Sewage Discharge, River Water

29.09.2009
In a study published September 24th ahead of print in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP), researchers measured oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), the active metabolite of the popular anti-influenza drug Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate), in samples of sewage discharge and river water collected near Kyoto City during Japan’s 2008–2009 flu season.

Scientists already knew that OC withstands the activated sludge treatment process used by many sewage treatment plants (STPs) and that the metabolite is released in STP wastewater, but the amount of OC reaching waterways as a result of this had not been measured. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to assess differences in the occurrence of OC in these waters over the course of a seasonal flu outbreak.

OC concentrations were highest in all samples during the peak of the seasonal flu outbreak, with the highest concentration, 293.3 nanograms per liter (ng/L), measured in discharge water from a conventional activated sludge-based STP. However, OC levels in discharge samples varied significantly depending on the type of sewage treatment method used, with a substantially lower peak concentration (37.9 ng/L) measured in discharge from an STP that used ozonation as an additional (tertiary) treatment.

The points where treated effluent is discharged into waterways tend to be warmer and resist freezing in winter, making them attractive spots for wild waterfowl. When influenza A virus in the birds’ droppings encounters active Tamiflu metabolite in the water, the scene is set for resistance to develop. Previous studies have reported that the concentrations of OC required to disable 50% of influenza virus—a measure of the drug’s effectiveness—ranged from 80 to 230 ng/L. Thus, the peak drug concentrations observed in this study may be high enough to promote the emergence of drug-resistant influenza strains in waterfowl exposed to OC-contaminated waterways.

Seasonal flu epidemics cause tens of millions of respiratory illnesses and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide each year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO recommends Tamiflu for both treatment and prevention of flu, and the drug is considered an important first-line defense in the event of a flu pandemic, including the current pandemic of H1N1 flu. However, there are widespread reports of resistance to Tamiflu among seasonal influenza. A growing number of similar reports in regards to novel H1N1 influenza highlight the need for measures to control the emergence and spread of drug-resistant viral strains.

“Ozonation as tertiary treatment will substantially reduce the OC load in STP effluent during an influenza epidemic or pandemic," wrote first author Gopal C. Ghosh and colleagues. “Further research is needed to investigate the fate of antiviral drugs at every unit process in the STPs.”

Other authors of the paper include Norihide Nakada, Naoyuki Yamashita and Hiroaki Tanaka. This study was partially supported by The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

The article is available free of charge at http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2009/0900930/abstract.html.

EHP is published by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. EHP is an Open Access journal. More information is available online at http://www.ehponline.org/. Brogan & Partners Convergence Marketing handles marketing and public relations for the publication and is responsible for creation and distribution of this press release.

Jenn Betz | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2009/0900930/abstract.html

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>