Equal pay for equal work: this principle is set out under the Federal Constitution, but its implementation is lagging behind. Women still earn significantly less than men, even if they hold the same qualifications, have the same length of experience and perform the same tasks.
Up until now, it was unknown at what career stage the gender wage gap opens up. Researchers led by the economist Michael Marti of Ecoplan, a research and consultancy company based in Bern, have now established that women are already paid less than men when they start out in their career.
The scientists analysed the data of some 6,000 young adults who had participated since the year 2000 in a long-term study on the transition from school to working life. They compared the entry-level salaries of young women with those of young men. In their analysis, the researchers examined a large variety of factors that could explain differing wages, i.e. schooling and training as well as grades in school-leaving and apprenticeship certificates. In addition, they also considered the skills of the young adults having taken the Pisa test, their profession and background, the size of the company and even the set of values of the young adults and the socio-economic status of their parents.
There are many reasons for this wage discrimination, according to the researchers. It cannot be ruled out that young men consciously or unconsciously choose companies where higher salaries are paid, or that they are more assertive when negotiating their pay. Furthermore, the early choice of a profession in the Swiss occupational training system seems to be detrimental to young women; they frequently opt for typically female jobs in the healthcare sector or work as hairdressers or florists, where wage levels are low as a rule. However, the researchers believe that the wage gap in itself is more likely the result of employers discriminating against women, i.e. they promote them to a lesser extent and offer them lower salaries. This discrimination may have to do with the fact that employers consciously or unconsciously assume that women will stay with the company for a shorter period of time because they will have children at some stage and therefore reduce their work-ing hours or leave the company entirely.Greater wage transparency
Media - Abteilung Kommunikation | idw
A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
11.01.2017 | University of Gothenburg
Urbanization to convert 300,000 km2 of prime croplands
27.12.2016 | Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) gGmbH
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
17.01.2017 | Earth Sciences
17.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
17.01.2017 | Architecture and Construction