Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study of Williams syndrome patients reveals specific gene's role in intelligence

23.04.2010
University of Utah Brain Institute researcher leads multi-institution team in groundbreaking study

Although genetics is the most significant known determinant of human intelligence, how specific genes affect intelligence remains largely unknown. A multi-institution team led by a University of Utah (U of U) USTAR researcher has found that the brain gene STX1A plays a significant role in the level of intelligence displayed by patients with Williams Syndrome (WS). The study may have implications for the understanding of intelligence and treatment of neurological disease in the general population.

Researchers at UCLA, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Salk Institute, and the U of U found that variations in the expression of STX1A could account for 15.6 percent of cognitive variation in a group of 65 WS patients, a very high level of confidence in comparison to prior genetic studies. STX1A is involved in the electrochemical processes that occur at the brain's synapses.

The research team is under the direction of Julie R. Korenberg, Ph.D., M.D., Brain Institute USTAR investigator and professor of pediatrics at the U of U School of Medicine. The team published the study on April 21, 2010 in the open access / online scientific jounal PLoS ONE.

The study describes a new approach in determining the relationship between gene expression and intelligence in patients with WS, a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the deletion of only two dozen genes from chromosome 7, a tiny fraction of the almost 30,000 genes found in humans. WS patients have one less copy each of the genes in question than does the general population.

WS patients typically exhibit an IQ of 60, compared to an average of 100 for the general population. WS patients tend to be highly verbal and social, but have difficulty with numbers, visual-spatial perception and memory.

"Williams Syndrome patients are missing a very, very small amount of genetic material," said Korenberg. "In almost all other respects, their make-up is the same as the general population, so we knew to take a very close look at a small number of genes. We analyzed ten different genes, but the data spoke, and STX1A clearly stood out in relation to the different patients' intelligence levels," Korenberg said.

STX1A has a fundamental role in the brain's neurotransmission machinery. It supports the process by which electrical signals speed from one neuron to the next. "In terms of the brain, we're talking about a basic utility when we look at STX1A," Korenberg said.

The study points the way to further research that may have long-range benefits for WS patients as well as the general population. "This study shows in part how Nature's hand shapes intelligence at the synapse. Monitoring gene expression may provide unique insights into the neurobiology and genetics of intelligence in WS subjects and possibly the general population," Korenberg said.

Korenberg suggested there may be pharmaceutical treatments in the future that could help enhance synaptic function. "New studies could suggest ways to help people whose brain function is lacking, such as in Williams Syndrome, or people who are losing brain function, such as in Alzheimer's Disease," she said.

The research team overcame obstacles with some creative problem solving, Korenberg said. Since brain cells from live patients were unavailable for study, lymphoblastoid cells from the lymph system grown in culture provided the genetic material to analyze.

In addition, the researchers developed a more precise measure of WS intelligence test data, using a technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In comparison to standardized IQ tests best suited for the general population, the PCA approach was able to better represent a baseline pattern of intelligence in WS patients. The WS baseline adjusted for relative strengths and weaknesses in the study group, and was able to illuminate the impact of specific genes like STX1A more accurately.

PLoS ONE is a peer-reviewed, open access, online scientific journal published by Public Library of Science. The full text of the paper, "Intelligence in Williams Syndrome is related to STX1A, which encodes a component of the presynaptic SNARE complex," is at http://tinyurl.com/237fdvp.

About the Brain Institute

The Brain Institute was founded in 2005 to be a coordinating center for neuroscience research in Utah. With 140 faculty members from 35 academic departments, the Brain Institute is a bona fide interdisciplinary organization in which the whole is much more than the sum of its parts. The primary mission of the Brain Institute is to cultivate collaborations between neuroscientists, engineers, physicians and community partners to accelerate brain research, and to translate research findings into new treatments for individuals suffering from neurological diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, and central nervous system injuries.

About USTAR

The Utah Science Technology and Research initiative (USTAR) is a long-term, state-funded investment to strengthen Utah's "knowledge economy" and generate high-paying jobs. Funded in March 2006 by the State Legislature, USTAR is based on three program areas. The first area involves funding for strategic investments at the University of Utah and Utah State University to recruit world-class researchers. The second area is to build state-of-the-art interdisciplinary facilities at these institutions for the innovation teams. The third program area involves teams that work with companies and entrepreneurs across the State to promote science, innovation, and commercialization activities. For more information, go to www.innovationutah.com or follow http://twitter.com/Innovationutah.

Jason Youngstrom | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.utah.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

nachricht Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Devils Hole: Ancient Traces of Climate History

24.05.2017 | Earth Sciences

Discovery of a Key Regulatory Gene in Cardiac Valve Formation

24.05.2017 | Life Sciences

A CLOUD of possibilities: Finding new therapies by combining drugs

24.05.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>