While yielding valuable clues on the genetic origins of drug resistance, the findings also pave the way toward the development of new diagnostic kits for detecting and preventing the spread of global pandemic diseases.
A unique triple combination of bird, swine and human flu viruses, the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus, first detected in April of 2009, quickly spread from Mexico to locations across the world. By April 2010, outbreaks of the disease at both local and global scales had resulted in roughly 18,000 deaths worldwide, causing serious damage both to human health and on the global economy.
In Japan, the first case of the pandemic was reported on May 9, 2009, thereafter spreading to hundreds of people in Osaka and Kobe and eventually leading to more than 200 deaths in the country. Existing research on the spread of the virus in Japan has provided valuable information on local strains during the early phase of infection and on their classification into different groups. How the pandemic evolved to reach its peak phase of contagion, however, is not yet well understood.
To clarify the genetic basis for this evolution, the OSC group studied 253 samples of the virus collected from the Osaka area during the initial phase (May, 2009) and from the Kansai and Kanto areas during the peak phase (October, 2009 to January 2010) of contagion. Of 20 different mutation groups identified in the peak infection group, analysis revealed that 12 were entirely new to Japan. Rapid mutation of the virus strains was traced to a genome with an extremely high evolutionary rate.Among the variety of mutants discovered, the researchers were able to pinpoint two mutations which clearly differentiate the early phase and peak phase viruses. They also identified mutations in some viruses which confer resistance to Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), one of the most widely-used antiviral drugs. Published in the journal PLoS ONE, the findings together mark a major advance in efforts to understand the genetic origins of the 2009 A(H1N1) virus, and a key step in OSC-centered efforts to develop on-site detection techniques for controlling infection of deadly pandemics.
New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)
Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences